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Chapter 8-12

Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8-12: Genital Wart, Aids, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Course Code
PSYCH 2075
William Fisher

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Chapter 8: Sexually Transmitted Infections5/9/2014 4:04:00 PM
- STI is more encompassing because it includes infections for which people
have symptoms as well as those that don’t (asymptomatic)
- STI & HIV epidemic in Canada disproportionately affects teens and young
- HPV, trichomoniasis and chlamydia account for majority of cases
- Bacterial infections can be cured with antibiotics; viral infections can’t be
cured but symptoms can be treated
STI-related stigma: individual’s awareness that people will judge them
negatively for having an STI
STI-related shame: the negative feelings people have about themselves
when they receive an STI diagnosis
Chlamydia: bacterium spread through sexual contact that infects the genital
Most prevalent bacterial STI in Canada with rates rising
Adolescent girls have particularly high rate of infection (more than
5x the national rate)
o Men: thin, usually clear discharge and mild discomfort on
urination (7-21 days after)
o Women: asymptomatic (no symptoms)
o Curable
o Poorly treated cases can result in complications
o Woman untreated can get pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
which is an infection and inflammation of the pelvic organs
(fallopian tubes, uterus) as well as infertility
o Vaccine should be available within decade
o Best way to prevent: Screening programs
Self-testing is a promising method for those who don’t want to see
a doctor
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HPV: Human Papillomavirus
40+ types
o Some cause genital warts and are low risk (don’t cause
o Some high-risk kinds (do cause cancer)
Not a reportable disease and therefore estimates are difficult
o Highest rate among women under 25
Condoms reduce risk of infection, but don’t eliminate it as it’s skin-
to-skin contact usually
Genital warts: cauliflower-like warts appearing on the genitals
o Usually show up 3-8 months after infection
Causes most kinds of cervical cancer
o Inspecting warts
o Women abnormal cells in pap test
o Treatments for genital warts available
o Many cases of HPV go away on their own but some can
o Vaccine against HPV prevents most cases of cervical cancer
o Idea is to administer to girls around 11-12 before they have
engaged in sexual activity as well as women up to 25
o Gardasil protects against two kinds of HPV (16 & 18) most
associated with cervical cancer
Also protects against 2 other HPV types that cause most
cases of genital warts
Genital Herpes
Genital Herpes: disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Two strains (HSV-1 and HSV-2) both cause herpes
Rate higher in women than men and rate increased with age
More than 20% are infected
Most people are asymptomatic
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o HSV-2 causes small painful bumps/blisters on genitals that
appear 2-3 weeks after infection
o Blisters burst and can be very painful but heal on their own in
about 3 weeks, but the virus remains
o Symptoms may recur occasionally
o HSV-1 less severe
o No cure
o Drug reduces recurring symptoms and reduces transmission
Long-Term Consequences
o Herpes can increase risk of HIV due to open blisters
o Transference from mother to infant in childbirth leading to
illness/death in baby
Risk of transmission to infant highest in women who
have recently been infected and having first outbreak
Risk is less with women who have had disease longer
Risk is low if woman is not having an outbreak
C-sections usually done with women in outbreak
Psychological Aspects: Coping with Herpes
o Spectrum of responses
Difficulties aggravated by frequency of outbreaks and
no predictableness
HIV Infection and AIDS
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) : destroys body’s
natural immunity to infection so the person is susceptible to and
may die from opportunistic diseases
HIV: human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS
o HIV-2 identified almost exclusively in Africa and HIV-1 in
North America
An Epidemic?
o 33 million persons worldwide have HIV but most don’t know
o Exchange of body fluids (blood, semen, secretions from
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