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Chapter 1

2080B Chapter 1.docx

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Psychology 2080A/B

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Psychology 2080 B Chapter one Basic Concepts  Test: is a measurement device or technique used to quantify behaviour or aid in the understanding and prediction of behaviour  Item: a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly; this response can be scored or evaluated  Psychological Test: is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristic’s of human beings that pertain to behaviour o Overt- an individuals observable activity o Covert- takes place within an individual and cant be directly observed  Scales: tools that relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical situation Types Of Tests  Intelligence Tests: refers to a persons general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience  Human Ability: behaviours the reflect either what a person has learned or the persons capacity to emit a specific behaviour includes achievement, aptitude and intelligence  Structured personality tests: tests that provide a statement, usually of he self-report variety and require the subject to choose between two or more alternative responses. Sometimes called objective personality tests  Projective tests: provide ambiguous test stimulus, response requirements are unclear  Psychological testing: Principals of psychological testing  The basic concepts and fundamental ideas that underlie all psychological and educational tests  Reliability: the extent to which a score or measure if free of measurement error  Validity: the extent to which a test measures the quality it purports to measure Historical perspective  Early Antecedent’s o Early work was shown in china, they had a relatively sophisticated testing program more than 400 years ago o Test batteries: o The English picked up the testing systems (the east India company) and used them to select employees for overseas duties o The British government then adopted the same system Charles Darwin and individual difference  Darwin believed that because people differ, some are better suited for adapting to life and survival  Sir Francis Galton: used Darwin’s theory an applied it to humans, he set out to prove that people have characteristics that make them for fit for survival (hereditary Genius) Experimental psychology and psychophysical measurement  Psychological testing developed fro at least two lines of inquiry: one based on the work of Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences and the other based on the work of the German psychophysicists Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt  Binet developed the first major general in
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