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Chapter 5

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Psychology 2080A/B

Test and Measurement Chapter 5 Validity  In the case Griggs v. Duke Power, the supreme court ruled that the test that the company was giving to the employees did not measure the specific job capabilities  The meaning of the test is defined by specific evidence acquired by specific methods  There must be evidence that a test has meaning, and there also has to be evidence that there is validity for the specific situation in which the test is applied  Psychologists always start with the notion that there is no reason to believe a measure is valid Defining Validity  Validity can be defined as the agreement between a test score or measure and the quality it is believed to measure  Standards is organized into three sections o Foundations: is similar to our principals and focuses on basic psychometric concepts such as validity and reliability o Operations: considers how tests are designed and built and how they are administered, scored and reported o Applications: takes on a wide range of issues ranging from training required to administer and interpret tests  Validity is the evidence for inferences made about a test score, there are three types of evidence: construct related, criterion related, and content related Aspects of Validity  Face validity: is the mere appearance that a measure has validity  Face validity is really not validity at all because it does not offer evidence to support conclusions drawn from test scores  In many settings it is crucial to have a test that looks like it is valid – this can motivate test takers Content related evidence for validity  Content-related evidence for validity of a test or measure considers the adequacy of representation of the conceptual domain the test is designed to cover  Content validity evidence: has been of greatest concern in educational testing  May factors can limit performance, these factors can include characteristics of the items and the sampling of items  Content validity is the only type of evidence besides face validity that is logical rather than statistical  Content validity evidence is often made by expert judgment  Construct underrepresentation describes the failure to capture important components of a construct  Construct-irrelevant variance occurs when scores are influences by factors irrelevant to the construct Criterion-related Evidence for validity  Criterion validity evidence tells us just how well a test corresponds with a particular criterion  A criterion is the standard against which the test is compared  The reason for gathering criterion validity evidence is that the test or measure is to serve as a stand-in for the measure we are really interested  Predictive and concurrent evidence o Predictive validity evidence: the forecasting function of tests is actually a type or form of criterion validity evidence o Correcting for restricted range boosts the correlations significantly. Restricted range occurs when colleges do not have the full range of GPA scores or SAT scores because they select only the best students o Concurrent related evidence for validity comes from assessments of the simultaneous relationship between the test and the criterion o Concurrent evidence for validity applies when the test and the criterion can be measured at the same time o Concurrent validity evidence o One method is to test potential employees on a sample of behaviours that represent the tasks to be required of them o Another use of concurrent validity evidence is when a person does not know how he or she will respond to the criterion measure  Validity coefficient o The relationship between a test and a criterion is usually expressed as a correlation called a validity coefficient o One rarely sees a validity coefficient larger than .60 o Coefficients in the range of .30 to .40 are commonly considered high o A coefficient is statistically significant if the chances of obtaining its value by chance alone are quite small o The validity coefficient squared is the percentage of variation in the criterion that we can expect to know in advance because of our knowledge of the test scores  Evaluating validity coefficients o Standards for educational and psychological testing and the joint committee of the AERA and the APA and the NCME lists several issues of concern when interpreting validity coefficients o Look for changes in the cause of relationship  The logic of criterion validation presumes that the causes of the relationship between the test and the criterion will still exist when the test is in use  There may be circumstances under
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