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Chapter 8

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Psychology 2080A/B

Test and Measurement Chapter 8: Interviewing techniques  There are different types of interviews. In the example on the first page: the first interview was structured, narrow and restricted, directive (meaning that the interview focused on specific aspects of the interviewee) it is also known as an selection interview, while the second interview was the complete opposite, the interviewer rarely asked questions and only commented on the responses given, it was unstructured and not directive and is known as a diagnostic interview (it focused on emotional functioning) Interview as a test  There are many similarities, as an interview is trying the describe the individual, and can be evaluated in terms of reliability and validity  Similarities between and test and a interview o Methods for gathering data o Used to make predictions o Evaluated in terms of reliability o Evaluated in terms of validity o Group or individual o Structures or unstructured Reciprocal nature of interviewing  All interviews involve mutual interaction whereby the participants are interdependent (they influence each other)  Experiment: o Akehurst and Vrij observed criminal suspects o The higher the activity level of one of the participants increased the activity level of the other and vice versa o This also meant that if the criminal increased there activity level that the interviewer became more suspicious of them  Experiment: o Heller found that when actors responded with anger toward highly trained experienced interviewers, they became angry as well o This phenomenon is called social facilitation  Summary- people influence each other in an interview, it is why it is essential for the interviewer to remain calm and provide a relaxing environment because they are in control of the interview Principals of effective interviewing  Specific techniques vary on the type of interview that you want to conduct  The proper attitudes o Interpersonal influence (the degree to which one person can influence another) is related to interpersonal attraction (the degree to which people share a feeling of understanding mutual respect, similarity and the like) o Experiment:  Saccuzzo studied the initial psychotherapeutic interviews of first year clinical psychology graduate students  Task was to rate the quality of the interview  The most important factors in the patients evaluations was their perception of the interviewers feelings o The interviewer must display the proper attitudes (warmth, respect, ease, interest etc.)  Responses to avoid o Stress interview- to make the person feel uncomfortable to see how they respond o Interviewers should avoid probing questions and judgmental comments o When you judge you put people on guard o It also makes the person being interviewed closed off, and they reveal vary little of themselves o Should avoid asking why because it may make the person reveal something that they did not want to or were not ready to o Sometimes it is necessary, but probing questions should be phrased differently like tell me, or how… not why o You should never give false reassurance  Effective responses o One major principal of effective interviewing is keeping the interaction flowing (mostly done by the interviewer) o You can effectively initiate an interview with an open ended question like tell me about yourself o This way you can learn a lot more about the person that you are interviewing  Responses to keep the interaction flowing o Small statements by the interviewer can keep things moving like, “yes, I know, or I see” o If this fails’ the interviewer should make a response that is relevant to the topic- they can use verbatim playback, paraphrasing, restatement, summarizing, clarifying and understanding o A paraphrase is more similar to the original statement than a restatement o When we show people that we understand (display empathy) they open up more and show trust  Measuring understanding o Carl rogers seminal research into the effects of client-centered therapy, it culminated a 5 point scoring system and each level in the system displays a degree of empathy o The levels range from a response that bears little or no relationship to the previous statement to a response that captures the precise meaning and feeling od the statement o **EXAMPLES OF THESE LEVELS ARE ON PAGE 215 o Active listening: a understanding response, that is related to the topic of discussion Types of Interviews  Evaluation Interview o Confrontation is a statement that points out a discrepancy or inconsistency o Carkhuff distinguished among three types  1. A discrepancy between what the person is and what he or she wants to become  2. A discrepancy between what the person says about himself or herself and what he or she does  3. A discrepancy between the persons perception of himself or herself and the interviewers
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