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Chapter 9

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Psychology 2080A/B

Test and Measurement Chapter 9: Theories of intelligence and the Binet Scales The problem of defining Intelligence  Alfred Binet defines intelligence as: the tendency to take and maintain definite direction the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end and the power of auto criticism  Spearmen: the ability to enduce wither relations or correlates  There are many different definitions of intelligence given all by different researchers  T.R Taylor identified three independent research traditions that have been employed to study the nature of human intelligence: o The psychometric: examines the element of structure of a test , and then examine the properties of a test through an evaluation of its correlates and underlying dimensions o The information processing approach: we examine the process that underlie how we learn and solve problems o Cognitive tradition approach: focuses on how humans adapt to real world demands  People have said that intelligence tests are biased because they do not consider socioeconomic backgrounds  There are many critiques of intelligence test  The Binet scale has been revised at least 5 times  Formal intelligence testinthbegan with a French minister of public instruction around the turn of the 20 century  created a test to remove the lower scoring students from the classroom to receive special education experiences o 1904- he gave appointed a commission to which he gave definite assignment: to recommend a procedure for identifying so called subnormal (intellectually limited children) o Binet was a part of this commission  Experiment: o Wissler indicated that simple functions such as reaction time and sensory acuity failed to discriminate well among individuals of high and low scholastic ability Binets principals of Test Construction  Defined intelligence as the tendency to take and maintain definite direction the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end and the power of auto criticism  Binet wanted to measure judgment, attention and reasoning  He used trial and error, and was guided my two major principals  Principal one: Age differentiation o Refers to the simple fact the one can differentiate older children from younger by the formers greater capabilities o Binet searcher for tasks that could be completed by 66.67-75% of the children of a particular age group and by a smaller proportion of younger children o He did come up with these tasks, and could therefor estimate the mental ability of the child o The mental age is independent of the chronological age  Principal two: General Mental Ability o Guided by his decision to also measure only the total product of the various spate and distinct elements of intelligence, that it general mental ability o This meant that he freed himself from having to find the total or final product of intelligence o He would judge the value of a score and correlate with the total Spearmen’s Model of General Mental Ability  Advanced the notion of a general mental ability factor underlying all intelligent behaviour- before Binet  He said intelligence consists of one general factor (g) plus a large number of specific factors  Referred to as psychometric g (general mental ability)  ^ Based on the phenomenon that when a set of diverse ability test are administered to large unbiased samples of the population, almost all of the correlations are positive (called positive manifold)  Refer to the hydro example (238)  Factor analysis: is a method for reducing a set of variables or scores to a smaller number of hypothetical variables called factors. One can determine how much variance a set a set of tests or scores has in common  This common variance represents the g factor  Half of the variance in a set of diverse mental ability tests is represented in the g  Implications of general Mental intelligence o Concept of general intelligence implies that a persons intelligence can best be represented by a single score g, that presumably reflects the shares variance underlying performance on a diverse set of tests o True performance of any given task can be attributed to g as well as a unique variance  The gf-gc theory of intelligence o There are two basic types of intelligence; fluid and crystallized o Fluid: abilities that allow us to reason, think and acquire new knowledge o Crystallized: represents the knowledge and understanding that we have acquired The Early Binet Scales  Collaboration by Binet and T. Simon  Eventually called Stanford-Binet intelligence Test  The 1905 Binet-Simon Scale o 30 items shown in an increasing order of difficulty o Individual test o Idiot- described the most ever from of intellectual impairment o Imbecile- moderate levels of impairment o Moron- mildest level o Item 6- upper limit of adult idiots o Item 8- would rule out sever intellectual impairment o Item 16-upper limit for adult imbeciles o First measure of human intelligence o Lacked adequate measuring unit, normative data and validity documentation o Based on only 50 children  The 1908 Scale o Was an age scale- the items were grouped according to age level rather that simply increasing the difficulty o Used in only hybrid fashion in modern times o It makes comparing a child’s performance on different kinds of tasks near
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