Textbook Notes (363,534)
Canada (158,402)
Psychology (4,731)
Prof (13)
Chapter 18

2080B Chapter 18 .docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2080A/B

Testing in Industrial and Business settings Test and measurement- Chapter 18  Industrial/organizational psychology (I/O) – emphasis on psychological testing  Two major areas: o Personnel psychology: is the study and practice of job analysis, job recruitment, employee selection and the evaluation of employee performance o Organizational psychology: considers leadership, job satisfaction, employee motivation and a variety of factors surrounding the functioning of organization Personnel Psychology- the selection of employees  Employment interview: o Hard because people want to make the best impression, so they are not always honest o There is low reliability sometimes if the interview is unstructured, so often most employment interviews are highly structured o People look for negative things in an interview- most likely you will not get the job o DO NOT form an early bias – common basic error o Competent performance in a job interview is widely regarded as one of the most important factors in obtaining employment o Try and make a good first impression o Do not go to overboard in trying to impress- can backfire o Study:  Wore perfume and were overly friendly- they did not get the job  One or the other they did get it Base Rates and Hit Rates  If the test is a two choice test, there is often a cut off rate (above yes below no etc.)  The score marking the point for a decision is the cutting score  This does not ensure correct decisions  You can test if the test has put people into the right category- if it is for a job then simply monitor there job performance  HIT AND MISS CHART  Hit rate: the percentage of cases in which a test accurately predicts success of failure  Base Rate: proportion of people expected to succeed on a criterion if they are chosen at random  The hit rate must tell us how much information a test contributes to the prediction of success beyond what we know just by examining the proportion of people who succeed  False negative: case in which the test suggests negative classification, yet the correct classification is positive  If a false negative is high then the examiner would put the cutting score low so there are safer errors  False positive: test suggests positive classification yet the correct classification is negative  If the costs of a false positive are high then you would want to put the cutting score high  Many controversies in health care are affected by the hit a miss rates of testing Taylor-Russell Tables  A series of tables one can use to estimate the validity of a test in relation to the amount of info it contributes beyond what would be known by chance  To use them you must know: o 1. Definition of success: for each situation in which the test is to be used, success of the outcome must be defined. One must define success clearly by dichotomizing some outcome variable o 2. Determination of base rate: the percentage of people who would succeed if there were no testing or screening procedure must be determined o 3. Definition of selection ratio: the selection ration must be defined. This is the percentage of applicants who are selected or admitted o 4. Determination of validity coefficient: finally, a validity coefficient for the test usually the correlation of the test with the criterion is required  There is a different table for each base rate  To use: find the row that represents the validity of the test that would be used for selection, fined the column that is associated with the proportion of people who can be selected- that number is an estimate of the number of people expected to succeed  EXAMPLE OF THIS IS ON PAGE 508  They also help reveal the futility of certain types of assessment procedures  Although background information is useful- it may provide only a minimum of information about future success  This is based of a succeed/fail rate – must be a dichotomous test Utility Theory and Decision Analysis  Researched have attempted to provide more than just a succeed failure rate- they try and make a continuum. These formulations are based on utility theory  Study: Hunter and Schmidt- 40% of the average salary produces reasonable estimate of the standard deviation of output  Study: Raju- the value of each individual can be estimated from the total values of his or her compensation package  Utility theory is only occasionally used in personnel selection  Now used in education Value added Employee Assessments  It has been argues that we should judge work performance on the basis of achieving long term goals (judge doctors on how many patients recover form illness)  The value added approach to teacher assessment proposes to promote teachers with their students perform better than expected and deny reappointment for teachers whose students perform poorly  Not fair to punish a teacher on a student who has low performance ability- to solve this we use the value added approach  A statistical model uses a variety of variables to estimate expected student growth over the course of a school year  This is now being used and supported by many  There are problems – first, measuring growth has always been hard.- compare students who are in different schools but this is hard because there are many factors that contribute to a child’s learning  There are many other factors that bias the assessment o Example disadvantaged kids cant go to camp, may lose most of what they have learned  The ceiling effect comes into play here when the kids are gifted an already d very well  Consequences of the value added approach: assortative selection: this happens if a teacher is working with very hard students and now is seen as a poor teacher- and not hired, and then someone working with great gifted kids is hired, but cant handle the children  Another criticism is teaching to the test so that the kids do well  Reporter have shamed teachers publ
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2080A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.