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Psych 2080 Ch 1,2,4

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Psychology 2080A/B
Stelian Medianu

PSYCH 2080B – Exam Review CHAPTER 1- INTRO What is a Test  Test: a measurement device or technique used to quantify behabiour or aid in the understanding and prediction of behaviour  Item: specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly o Response can be scored or evaluated o Specific questions/problems that make up a test  Psychological Test: or educational test, is a set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behaviour  Overt behaviour: an individual’s observable activity  Covert behaviour: takes place within an individual  Scales: relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution Types of Tests  Individual tests: tests that can be given to only one person at a time  Test administrator: person giving the test  Group test: can be administered to more than one person at a time by a single examiner (everyone in class is given test at same time)  Ability test: contains items that can be stored in terms of speed, accuracy or both o The faster or more accurate your responses, the better your scores on a particular characteristic  Achievement: refers to previous learning o Ex. A test that measures or evaluates how many words you can spell correctly is called a spelling achievement test  Aptitude: by contrast, refers to the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill o Ex. Spelling aptitude test measures how many words you might be able to spell given a certain amount of training, education and experience  Intelligence: refers to a person’s general potential to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly and profit from experience  Human Ability: achievement, aptitude and intelligence tests overlap  Personality tests:related to the over and cover dispositions of the individual  Structured personality tests: provide a statement usually of the “self-report” varitety and require the subject to choose b/t two or more alternative responses such as true or false  Projective personality test: the stimulus (test materials) or the required response or both are ambiguous o Ex. Instead of choose among alternative responses, individual is asked to provide a spontaneous response  Psychological Testing: refers to all the possible uses, applications, and underlying concepts of psychological and educational tests o Main use of these tests is to evaluate individual differences/variations Principles of Psychological Testing  Reliability: refers to accuracy, dependability, consistency or a repeatability of test results o Reliability refers to the degree to which the test scores can be reliable  Validity: refers to the meaning and usefulness of test results o Degree to which a certain inference or interpretation on a test is appropriate  Test administration: act of giving a test Historical Perspective  Chinese had a relatively sophisticated civil service testing program more than 4000 years ago  Earliest tests were related to topics such as civil law, military affairs, agriculture, revenue and geography  In 1883 the U.S. government established the American Civil Service Commission which developed and administered competitive examinations for certain gov’t jobs  Charles Darwin – The Origin of the Species o individuals members of a species possess different characteristics some that are more adaptive and successful in certain environments o survival of the fittest has lead to current complex and higher intelligence levels (survivors pass on these characteristics  Galton – Hereditary Genius o some people possess characteristics that are more fit for survival o initiated a search for knowledge concerning human individual differences, which is now one of the most important domains of scientific psychology  James McKeen Cattell – extended Galton’s work o Coined the term mental test, individual differences in reaction time, helped lead to development of modern tests  Early attempts to unlock mysteries of human consciousness through the scientific method  Herbart – mathematical models of the mind  Weber – attempted to demonstrate the existence of a psychological threshold, the minimum stimulus necessary to activate a sensory system  Fechner – devised the law that strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity  Psychological testing developed from at least 2 lines of linear inquiry: one based on the work of Darwin, Galton and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences and the other (more theoretically relevant and stronger) based on the work of the German psychophysicists Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt  Testing requires rigorous experimental control*  Seguin Form Board Test – evaluate the mentally disabled  Kraepelin – test for emotionally impaired people  Binet and Simon – 1 major general intelligence test evaluating individual differences (individual test) Evolution of Intelligence and Standardization Achievement Tests  Binet Simon Scale o Comparison/standardization sample of 30 items of increasing difficulty  Standardization sample must rep’ the population – rather than comparing an individual with a group that does not have the same characteristics as the individual  Interview: method of gathering info through verbal interaction. Ie. Direct questions o Psychological testing is becoming increasingly under the scrutiny of the law b/c of bias  Representative sample: comprises individuals similar to those for whom the test is being used o When used for the general population, a rep’ sample must reflect all segments of the population in proportion to their actual numbers  Mental age: measurement of a childs performance on the test relative to other children of that particular age group (Binet Simon Scale) Achievement Tests – Kelley, Ruch, Terman  Standardized achievement tests provide multiple-choice questions that are standardized on a large sample to produce norms against which the results of new examinees can be compared  Easy to administer and score; lack of favoritism, inexpensive, efficient subjectivity that occur on written or essay tests Rising to the Challenge  Wechsler intelligence scale: unlike Stanford-Binet test, it yielded several scores rather than one, permitting an analysis of an individual’s pattern or combination of abilities  Do not require a verbal response – can use on people with less verbal skills Personality Tests  Intelligence tests measured ability or potential, personality tests measured presumably stable characteristics or traits that theoretically underlie behaviour  Traits: relatively enduring dispositions (tendencies to act, think or feel in a certain matter in any given circumstance) that distinguish one individual from another) o Ex. Optimistic vs. Pessimistic  Earliest were paper, pen group tests w/ multiple choice T & F – structured personality tests  WWI fueled widespread development of personality tests o Problems – dishonesty, misunderstanding of questions – cant be taken at face value Emergence of New Approaches to Personality Testing  Factor analysis: method of finding the minimum number of dimensions (characteristics, attributes) called factors to account for a large # of variables  Woodwarth Personal Data Sheet: An early structured personality test that assumed that a test response can be taken at face value  The Rorschach Inkblot Test: A highly controversial projective test that provided an ambiguous stimulus (an inkblot) and asked the subject what it might be  The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): a projective test that provided ambiguous pictures and asked subjects to make up a story  The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): A structured personality test that made no assumptions about the meaning of a test response. Such meaning was to be determined by empirical research  The California Psychological Inventory (CPI): A structured personality test developed according to the same principles as MMPI  The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF): A structured personality test based on the statistical procedure of factor analysis. Period of Changes in the Status of Testing  Industrial counseling, educational and school psychology began to blossom  APA affirmed that the domain of the clinical psychologist included testing  Psychologists began to feel like technicians and rejected the role of testing CHAPTER 2 – STATISTICS Norms and Basic Statistics for Testing Why we need statistics  Statistics are used for purposes of description  Second we can use statistics to make inferences which are logical deductions about events that cannot be observed directly  Exploratory data analysis: the detective work of gathering and displaying clues  Confirmatory data analysis: when the clues are evaluated against rigid statistical rules (work done by judges and juries)  Descriptive statistics: methods used to provide a concise description of a collection of quantitative information  Inferential statistics: methods used to make inferences form observation so f a small group of people known as a sample to a larger group of individuals known as a population Scales of Measurement  Measurement: the application of rules for assigning numbers to objects  Properties of Scales o Magnitude: the property of “moreness”  A scale has the property of magnitude if we can say that a particular instance of the attribute represents more, less, or equal amounts of the given quantity than does another instance o Equal Intervals: a scale has the property of equal intervals if the difference between two points at any place on the scale has the same meaning as the difference between two other points that differ by the same number of scale units  Ex. Difference between inch 2 and inch 4 on a rule represents the same quantity as the difference between inch 10 and inch 12: exactly 2 inches  The relationship between the measured units and some outcome can be described by a straight line or a linear equation in the form Y = a + bX  This equation shows that an increase in equal units on a given scale reflects equal increases in the meaningful correlates of units o Absolute 0: obtained when nothing of the property being measured exists  Ex. If you are measuring heart rate and observe that your patient has a rate of 0 and has died, then you would conclude that there is not heart rate at all Types of scales  Nominal scales: really not scales at all, their only purpose is to name objects o Ex. The numbers on the backs of football players’ uniforms are nominal o Nominal scales are used when the information is qualitative rather than quantitative  Ordinal Scale: scale with the property of magnitude but not equal intervals or an absolute 0 is an ordinal scale o Allows you to rank individuals or objects but not to say anything about the meaning of the differences between the ranks o Ex. IQ tests do not have the property of equal intervals or absolute 0, but they do have the property of magnitude  Interval scale: when a scale has the properties of magnitude and equal intervals but not absolute 0, we refer to it as an interval scale o Ex. Measurement of temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius  Ratio scale: scale that has all three properties (magnitude, equal intervals and an absolute 0) o Ex. Kelvin scale, Speed of travel Permissible Operations  For nominal data, each observation can be placed in only one mutually exclusive category o Ex. You are a member of only one gender – no mathematical manipulations of data are permissible  Ordinal measurements can be manipulated using arithmetic; however, the result is often difficult to interpret b/c it reflects neither the magnitudes of the manipulated observations nor the true amounts of property that have been measured o Ex. Heights of 15 children are ranked, ordered, knowing a given child’s rank does not reveal how tall he or she stands – avg’s of these ranks are equally uninformative but height  Interval Data – one can apply any arithmetic operation to the differences between scores, results can be interpreted in relation to the magnitudes of the underlying property o Cannot be used to make statements about ratios  Ex. If IQ is measured on an interval scale, one cannot say that an IQ of 160 is twice as high as an IQ of 80 Frequency Distributions  A Distribution of scores summarizes the scores for a group of individuals  Frequency distribution: displays scores on a variable or a measure to reflect how frequently each value was obtained o One defines all the possible scores and determines how many people obtained each of those scores o Positive skew – tail goes off toward the higher or positive side of the X axis  Ex. Income  Class interval: unit on the horizontal axis o Ex. Inches increase by 3 on the X axis Percentile Ranks  Percentile rank: answers the question, “What percent of the scores fall below a particular score (Xi)? To calculate percentile rank you follow these steps: o 1) determine how many cases fall below the score of interest o 2) determine how many cases are in the group o 3) divide the number of cases below the score of interest (step 1) by the total number of cases in the group (step 2) o 4) multiply the result of Step 3 by 100 o Ratio will always be less than or equal to 1. Percentiles  Percentiles are the specific scores or points within a distribution  They divide the total frequency for a set of observations into hundredths  The percentile gives the point in a distribution below which a specified percentage of cases fall  It is a measure of relative performance Describing Distributions  Variable: a score that can have different values  Mean: The arithmetic average score in a distribution  Standard Deviation: an approximation of the average deviation around the mean  Sets of numbers (distribution of scores) can differ but have the same mean – the difference between the sets lies in variability  Ex. Set 1 – 4,4,4,4 (no variability) Set 2 – 5,5,4,4,3,3 (small variability) Set 3 8,8,6,2,0,0 (lots of variability)  We can measure variability by subtracting mean from each score and then total the deviations o The sum of the deviations around the mean will always equal 0 o You can square all the deviations around th mean I order to get rid of any neg. signs o Then you can obtain the average squared deviation around the mean known as the variance  Standard deviation: the square root of the average squared deviation around the mean o Gives us an approximation of how much a typical score is above or below the average score o Knowing the standard deviation of a normally distributed batch of data allows us to make precise statements about the distribution Z Score  Z score: the difference between a score and the mean, divided by standard deviation o Transforms data into standardized units that are easier to interpret o Deviation of a score X from the mean in standard deviation units o If a score is equal to the mean, then its Z score is 0 o If a score is greater than the mean the Z score is + o If a score is less than the mean then the Z score is – Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-D)  CESD-D is a general measure of depression that has been used extensively in epidemiological studies o Scale includes 20 items and taps dimensions of depressed mood, hopelessness, appetite loss, sleep disturbance and energy level 
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