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Chapter 11

chapter 11

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Psychology 2080A/B
Gillian Mandich

CHAPTER 11- TRUE EXPERIMENTS, PART 1: SINGLE FACTOR DESIGNS true experiments; the experimenter has complete control over all aspects - random assignment is preferred because it allows one to conclude that any other variable could be confounded with the independent variable only by chance - no other method of assignment of subjects to conditions permits such a conclusion quasi experiments: research procedure which does not meet the requirements of true experiments factors: the independent variables of an experiment level: a particular value of an independent variable in an experiment condition: a group or treatment in an experiment treatment: another word for a condition of an experiment The Basic Elements of a Valid Experimental Design - when threats to validity are adequately controlled for, the experiment has been designed - no design can rule out all threats to validity for all time - even though there can be no perfect experiment, two particular elements of design provide control over so many different threats to validity that they are basic to good experimental designs : 1. the existence of a control group or condition 2. the random allocation of subjects to groups - in experiment is within sample, each subject experiences all conditions so random allocation of subject to conditions is not applicable - in such experiments the subject should experience the conditions either in random order or in counterbalanced order (SEE TABLE 11.1 PAGE 277 ON GOOD EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN) Within-Subjects Designs - is desirable when the effect of one condition will not carry over to or contaminate another conditions of the experiment to a serious degree - experimenters avoid within-subject designs if they believe that order or sequence effects will be substantial order effects: changes in a subjects performance resulting from the position in which a condition appears in an experiment sequence effect: changes in subjects performance resulting from interactions among the conditions themselves - lifting weights example - look at example on page 281 counterbalancing: controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience that various condit
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