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Psych 2080 ch 17 textbook notes.docx

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Psychology 2080A/B

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Intro to test and measure-Chapter 17 Textbook Notes: Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care *notes starting on page 467 Developmental neuropsychology: -repeated neuropsychological evaluations can help identify neurological changes that occur over time -neuropsychological assessment of children presents unique challenges: a young child with a brain injury may adapt well to most situations but she may later have problems with her geography class for exampleearlier brain injury may be missed until children reach the age where they are challenged with new types of problems -attention and executive function are believed to be SEPARATE Mirsky and colleagues have identified four different factors of mental processing and related them to specific anatomical regions of the brain: 1) Focus execute: refers to the child’s ability to scan info and respond in a meaningful way 2) Sustain: describes the child’s capacity to pay close attention for a defined interval of time 3) Encode: related to information storage, recall and mental manipulation 4) Shift: refers to the ability to be flexible *learning disabilities account for problems in speech and reading disorders in a significant number of children Dyslexia: specific reading disorder characterized by difficulties in decoding single words (affects approx. 4% of school-aged children and 80% of children identified as having a LD) *neuropsychological testing has also been used to determine if people are faking an illnessthe detection of malingering for adults who have traumatic brain injury (patients in a study exaggerated their cognitive dysfunction in order to gain greater benefits or to escape reassignment to work). -another application of neuropsychology is to determine the seriousness of concussions among athletesCRI (Concussion related index): tracks the recovering following a sports related concussionhelpful for determining when it is safe for athletes to return to the playing field. -clinical neurologists also study cognitive sequences of early brain lesions (persistent poor performance on tests of verbal ability, visual spatial, etc) -other studies focus on recovery from accidents and trauma -developmental neuropsychology is difficult because it requires several levels of assessment The two best approaches to identifying the consequences of brain injury in adults: 1) Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychology Battery: Halstead and Reitan worked together-the full battery includes many psychological tests and sometimes requires*** 8 to 12 hours to administer as well patients often receive the full MMPI to evaluate their emotional state in response to medical situation-the battery also includes a full WAIS -the battery can assist in localizing injury in either the left or right hemisphere of the brain however this *advantage may be small in relation to the many hours it takes to complete the test-new methods of brain imaging (MRI and CT scan) may be more efficient. Main idea was that it tried to find specific areas within the brain that particulate to certain behaviors 2) Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery -while other researchers such as Halstead and Reitain tried to find specific areas within the brain that correspond to particular behaviours-Luria did not acknowledge that any single area was solely responsible for any particular behaviour -instead saw the brain as a FUNCTIONAL system-each area of the brain was necessary (worked as a chain and if any link is injured the total system will break down-domino effect) *pluripotentiality: any one center in the brain can be involved in several different functional systems (ex: one center might be involved in both visual and tactile senses) -didn’t use a standardized procedure-hard for others to repeat the exact steps therefore hard to show validitydidn’t meet the psychometric standards of many US psychologists SO Golden (who worked at University of Nebraska), developed a standardized version of Luria’s procedure and because known as the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsych Battery: includes 269 items that can be administered in approx. 24 hours -variety of studies have demonstrated that the LN battery can make fine distinctions in neuropsychological functions *one of the ongoing debates among neuropsychologists concerns the value of quantitative versus qualitative approaches -the Halstead-Reitan is an example of a fixed quantitative battery (using this approach psychologists simply follow a set of standardized procedures -qualitative approaches allow greater flexibility- Ex: California Verbal Learning Test: -it is not enough to know that there is an impairment in cognitive functioning- instead one needs to know which aspects of the human information processing system are defective and which aspects are functioning well (not enough to just know that they are getting answers wrong and that they have a dysfunction) -the test determines how errors are made in learning tasksthe intent is to identify different strategies, processes and errors that are associated with specific deficits. -CVLT assesses various variables: in one component of the test, the subject is asked to imagine that he or she is going to go shopping-then the subject receives a list of items to buy-the examiner orally lists 16 items at one word per second and the respondent is asked to repeat the list-process is repeated through five trials. -CVLT can be administered by either paper and pen test or with a microcomputer (facilitates and speeds up the scoring process). -an advantage of the CVLT is that it allows a more precise evaluation of the nature of problems than do other tests. Automated Neuropsychological Testing -important new development that provide quick computerized interpretation of neuropsychological tests -Automated Neuropsychological Metrics test system: evaluates changes in human performance when people were exposed to difficult environmental circumstances -measure has now been used in a variety of clinical populations including studies of patients with multiple sclerosis, lupus, parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury and migraine headache. -the ANAM includes a variety of different tasks including code substitution, code substitutio
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