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Chapter 16

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Psychology 2080A/B
Hayden Woodley

Psychology 2080 Chapter 16­ Testing in Counselling Psychology Measuring Interests • if you want to enter an appropriate career, you must identify your interests • 90 years since the introduction of interest inventories • first interest inventory introduced in 1921 was called the Carnegie Interest Inventory • when the Mental Measurements yearbook was introduced in 1939 it discussed 15 different interest measures • the two most widely used interest tests were introduced relatively early: The Strong Vocational Interest Blank --> 1927 • • Kuder Preference Survey --> 1939 • today there are more than 80 interest inventories in use, but the Strong remains one of the most widely used tests in research and practice The Strong Vocational Interest Blank • shortly after WWI, E.K. Strong and some coworkers began to examine the activities that members of different professions liked and disliked • they came to realize that people in different professional groups had different patterns of interests • to some extent one might expect this, because people chose lines of careers that interest them • but they found that people in the same line of work had similar hobbies, liked the same kind of entertainment • with this research as the base Strong set out to develop a test that would match the interests of a subject to the interests and values of a criterion group of people who were happy in the careers they had chosen • this procedure is called criterion keying, or the criterion group approach • the test they created with this method was the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB) in the preliminary tests groups of individuals in several professions responded to 400 items • dealing with likes and dislikes related to these occupations and to leisure activities • the criterion keying then determined how the interests of new subjects resembled those of the criterion groups • in the revised 1966 version of the SVIB, the 399 items were related to 54 occupations for men a separate form presented 32 different occupations for women • • items were weighted according to how frequently an interest occurred in the general population • raw scores were converted to standard scores, with a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 • each criterion group contained about 300 people, a good normative sample • numerous reliability studies produced impressive results, with odd-even and short term test retest figures generally running between low .80s and the low .90s • long term test retest were a respectable .60s • validity data showed the test predicted job satisfaction well found that patterns of interest remain stable over time • • Strong made a practice of asking a group of Stanford University students who took the test in the 1930s to take the test again when they were older • studies showed that interests remain relatively stable for as long as 22 years also found that interest patterns are well established by 17 • • other studies showed some instability of interests in adolescence with patterns becoming stable in the senior year of high school • despite its widespread acceptance some disenchantment with the test began to mount in 1960s and early 1970s • critics cited a gender bias in the scales because different tests were used for men and women • others companied about the lack of theory associated with the tests The Strong-Campbell Interest inventory in 1974 Campbell published a new version of the SVIB which he called the SCII • • it was Campbell’s response to the shortcomings of the SVIB • items for both men and women were merged into a single form that included scales devoid of gender bias • example scales for waiter and waitress were combined • Campbell interest in Holland’s theory of vocational choice • he said people can be put in 6 categories based on their interests- could be used for women and men • when Campbell incorporated Holland’s Theory and his 6 personality factors into the SCII he provided a theoretical basis for a new test that the SVIB had lacked • over the years research generally supported Holland’s ideas • study showed Holland’s theory can better describe work activities, training requirements and occupational rewards better than competing vocational systems • Holland has summarized 50 years of research supporting the claim that occupational interests reflect personality • the SCII in its current form is divided into 7 parts • the test which still retains the core of the SVIB now has 325 items to which a person responds “like” or “dislike” or “indifferent” various agencies provide automatic scoring for the SCII and most of them summarize several • scores for each profile • the first score is a summary of general themes based on Holland’s 6 personality types (general types of activities the person enjoys, the kinds of people the person will work well with) • (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) • second score is for the administrative indexes, to show no errors were made in administration, scoring or processing of the test • the third set of scores provides a summary of a person’s basic interests • scored high low or average in a preference for science • reported in standardized T scores (mean 50, SD 10) • the final set of scores is for occupational scales • occupy most of the space in the SCII profile • profile shows the persons scores for each 124 occupations, which are broken into 6 themes • compares test takers score with people currently working in that field • the general theme and the basic interest scales compare test taker with general people • would get a rating of very dissimilar, dissimilar, average, similar, very similar between your interests and the interests of happy people in that profession • SCII no longer used that much because it has been replaced by newer tests last version was released in 1985 • • ruled out difficulties in interpretation and included a national sample and more occupational scales and included younger people in the criterion group The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey • when Strong died in 1963, Campbell became the primary representative for the SVIB • first version of the Strong Campbell Interest inventory was published in 1974 • because Strong has been a professor at Stanford University, Stanford and the University of Minnesota became engaged in a legal dispute over ownership in an out of court settlement Stanford got the rights to publish the Strong Interest inventory • while Campbell received the rights to most of the cumulative work • in 1922 Campbell published the Campbell Interest and Skill Inventory (CISS) • the CISS asked respondents to assess their degree of interest in 200 academic and occupational topics further it assesses the degree of skill in 120 specific occupations • • the system produces an 11 page profile and a 2 page report summary • CISS ultimately yields a variety of different types of scales • for each of these scales an interest level and a skill score are offered in addition to these specific scales it offers an academic focus scale that helps test takers • understand how comfortable or successful they may be in an academic setting and an extroversion scale that helps guide them to occupations with that appropriate amount and intensity of interpersonal relations • now on the internet for $18 + tax= 320 question survey compares your responses to people who are successfully employed in over 60 professions • • also includes a comprehensive career planner and a guide to help you interpret the results • to a large extent the CISS is a continuation of the research of the SVIB and the SCII • it is shorter and more efficient that the older SCII • the scales are standardized with a mean of 50 and SD of 10 • extensive reliability and validity and new evidence shows this Orientation Scales --> 7 scales describing the test takers occupational orientation • influencing, helping, creating, analyzing, producing, adventuring Basic Scales--> provide an overview for categories of occupations • examples include law/politics, counselling and mathematics Occupational Scales--> 60 occupational scales describe matches with particular occupations, including attorney, counsellor and math teacher The Reemergence of the Strong Interest Inventory • in 2007 Stanford released the new Strong known as the the Strong Interest Inventory (SII) • represented a substantial revision of the previous measure and features a different item format • previous editions had a three choice format • while the new had a five choice “likert” style format strongly dislike, dislike ect • a core component of the SII is the Basic Interest Scales (BIS) included 41 content scales to represent changing workplace areas and life • • 244 occupational scales • more focus on careers in business and technology for both men and women • normative groups are more diverse in terms of race, and diversity in the workplace the first published evaluation included 31 college majors in a national college sample of 1403 • women and 469 men to evaluate relationships between the content scales and college majors • study showed very strong concurrent validity for a wide variety of college major choices • the basic interest scales were the best predictor of selection of major • in summary the Strong has emerged as a major competitor among interest inventories • we expect continuing research to evaluate its validity • if you are interested in taking the SII you can do it for a fee of $75 The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey • although the SCII is probably the most widely used interest inventory today, it competes with many others • the KOIS ranks second in popularity • grew out of the original Kuder Preference Survey in 1939 been a uniques alternative to the SVIB, SCII and CISS • • the KOIS presents the test taker with 100 triads (sets of three) of alternative activities • for each triad, the test taker selects the most preferred and least preferred alternatives • scoring of the KPIS scales gives the same information yielded by the earlier Kuder Preference Surveys-data o
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