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Chapter 18

chapter 18 psychology 2080

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Western University
Psychology 2080A/B
Doug Hazlewood

IO Psychology rely extensevely on research quantitative methods testing procedures Personal Psychology is the study and practicing of job analysis job recruitment employee selection and the evaluation of employee perfomance Organizational psychology considers leadership job satisfaction employee motivation and variety of factors surrounding the functioning of organizationsThe employment interview helps ppl to make selection and promotion decision in businessMost research supports a structured format for the employment interview The loss flexibility in structured interview can be balanced by increases in reliability Mean validity coefficient is twice higher then for unstructured interview the employment interview often involves a search for negotive or unfavourable evidence about the person As one unfavourable impression was followed by final rejection in 90 and it droped to 25 when earlier impression was favourableNegotive factors that lead to the rejection of candidates are poor communication skills lack of confidence or poise low enthusiasm nervousness and failure to make eye contact Positive factors are the ability to express oneself selfconfidence and poise enthuusiasm the ability to sell oneself and aggressivenes A good impression one needs to wear professsional attire and show good grooming project aura of competence and expertise and give an impression of freindliness or personal warmth through nonverbal cuesThe result of one of the studies shows perfume or positive nonverbal behavior of a candidate produced enhanced ratings When used together these tactics produced negotive reactions among interviewers because they cause the applicant to be perceived as a manipulator Interviews remain the primary tool for selecting employees Strong emphasis on formal quantitative models and the use of tests for employee selectionBase rate and hot ratesIf a test is used to make a dichotomous two choice decision then a cutoff score is used The score making the point of decision is called cutting score Those at above or the same score will be selected for employment Tests can be evaluated by how well they sort people into the right categories In addition to the scores on the test the employermust have some data on how ppl do on the job Criterion for deciding is perfomance on the job Hit rate is the percentage of cases in which a test accurately predicts success or failure Often the tests dont need a hit rate since the result will be predicted by base rate ex select the candidates for law school acoording to other information then LSAT score The hit rate must tell how much information a test contributes to the prediction of success beyond what we would know by just examining the propertion of ppl who succeed Another problem to consider with regard to hit and miss rates is relative cost medical example about cancer shows that the cost of misinterpretation of the result of the score is human life according to psychology concluding that smone is not suicide because he is below cuttoff score when in fact he is suicidal may allow to prevent suicide This is an example of false negotive If the cost of false negotive is high then a test developer
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