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Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4: Cognitive Notes.docx

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Psychology 2135A/B
Patrick Brown

Cognitive Chapter 4: Short Term Memory Chapter 4: Short Term Memory - Working memory: the use of short-term memory as a temporary store for information needed to accomplish a particular task Forgetting Rate of Forgetting - probablility of a correct recall declines rapidly over 18 seconds Decay Vs. Interference - Interference theory: proposal that forgetting occurs because other material interferes with the information in memory o Proven to be the primary cause of forgetting o The extent of forgetting is determined not only by the number of interfering items but also by the degree of similarity between the interfering and test items - Decay theory: proposal that information is spontaneously lost over time, even when there is no interference from other material Release from Proactive Interference - Retroactive interference: forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered after learning - Proactive interference: forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered before learning - Realease from proactive interference: reducing proactive interference by having information be dissimilar from earlier material The Magic Number 7 - Memory span: the number of correct items that people can immediately recall from a sequence of items - Absolute judgment task: identifying stimuli that vary along a single, sensory continuum - Chunks: a cluster of items that has been stored as a unit in long-term memory Individual Differences in Chunking - More skilled players were more successful in reproducing the chess board because they had more chunks and more pieces per chunk Instructional Implication - Split attention effect: occurs when people have to divide their attention between two sources, such as the instructions and the physical objects - The key to avoiding the split attention effect is to physically integrate the information - Redundancy effect: if equicalent information is provid
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