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Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10: Cognitive Notes.docx

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Psychology 2135A/B
Patrick Brown

Chapter 10 Language Two views of language formation AssociationsTheory we learn to speak correctly through pairedassociates learningeach word in a sentence serves as a stimulus for the word that follows itChomsky proposed problems o 1 Infinite number of sentences in a language therefore has to be infinite number of associations o 2 Does not account for the relation among nonadjacent words ignores the hierarchical structure of sentences Grammar Grammar a set of rules for producing correct sentences in a languageLanguage a collection of symbols and rules for combining these symbols which can be used to create an infinite variety of messages o Symbolic the use of symbols such as spoken or written words to represent ideas Symbols are arbitrary there is no builtin relation between the look or sound of the words and the object they represento Generative a limited number of words can be combined in an endless variety of ways to generate an infinite number of sentences o Structured by following grammatical rules we can produce grammatical sentences Grammatical rules partition the sentence into a non phrase The strangers and a verb phrase talked to the playersMorphemes the smallest units of meaning in a language include stem words prefixes and suffixesPhonemes the basic sounds of a language Three Aspects of Language 1 Grammar Forming PhrasesDivide sentence into noun and verb phraseDivide the noun and verb phrase into smaller units 2 Meaning Combining Words and MorphemesA sentence that is grammatically correct isnt necessarily meaningfulWe can also have meaning without producing grammatically correct sentencesSyntax grammar semantics meaningBrocas aphasia o Frontal lobe left hemisphere o Semantics but NO SYNTAX o Cannot indicate similarity between wordsWernickes aphasia o Temporal lobe left hemisphere o Syntax but NO SEMANTICS o Can indicate similarity between wordsKaan and Swaab 2002 o Proposed that the temporal lobe provides information about both semantic and syntactic information associated with incoming words o Normal comprehension uses the meaning of words to indicate information about the grammatical form of the sentences3 Sound Producing PhonemesAcoustic aspects of language are important even when we encounter written words subvocalizationNewborns can discriminate among all phonemes in different languages Kuhl 1993 o 6 month olds start forming prototypes o perceptual magnet difficulty distinguishing between a prototype and a nonprototype because the nonprototype begins to sound more like the prototype
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