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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11: Cognitive Notes.docx

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Psychology 2135A/B
Patrick Brown

Chapter 11: Comprehension and Memory for Text - One method for studying the difficulty of comprehension is to measure reading speed - Gernsbacher’s Structure Building Framework to understanding text: o Laying a foundation o Mapping information onto the foundation o Shifting to build new structures - Research has showed that people slow down when they read the first sentence of a paragraph because they are building a foundation for the ideas that follow Prior Knowledge of the Reader Effect on Comprehension - Bransford and Johnson o Found effect of context was useful, but only if people were aware of the context before reading the passage o Background knowledge isn’t sufficient if people don’t recognize the appropriate context Effect on Retrieval - Anderson and Pichert o Shift in perspective results in the recall of additional ideas o The perspective influence the kind of information people recalled during the first recall period o A change in perspective can result in recall of additional information o Differs from Bransofrd and Johnson because a shift to a new perspective aided the retrieval, rather than comprehension of ideas o 3 possible explinations:  Guessed  Believed other information in other perspective wasn’t important so didn’t recall it  MOST PROBABLE: new perspective provided them with a plan for searching memory - Prior knowledge can inflence the comprehension and recall of text in a variety of ways. Prior knowledge can make abstract ideas seem less abstract and easier to comprehend. It can also determine what we emphasize in a text and provide a framework for recalling ideas. Effect on False Recognition and Recall - Suling and Dooling o After 1 week, it was more difficult for people who had read the Hitler passage to distinguish between what was in the passage and what they knew about Hitler - Price we pay for the benefits of prior knowledge is that it may be more difficult to locate the source of our knowledge if what we read is integrated with what we know. Organization of Text - Global coherence: integration of major ideas that occur throughout a text o Major characters and events related to achieiving goals - Local coherence: integration of ideas within an immediate context in the text o Need to integrate the ideas that we are reading with the ideas that immediately preceded those ideas. Story Structure - Setting: time and place in which narrative occurs - Theme: the main goals of characters in a narrative - Plot: sequence of events related to achieving goals in a narrative - Resolution: the outcome of events in the plot - Thorndyke o People recalled less information when the goal statement occurred at the end of the story and still less information when the goal was deleted - Bower, Black and Turner o Investigated how people’s knowledge of such routine activities (scripts) helps them understand and remember information in a text o What is interesting in a script is something that is related to the script but is unexpected o Obstacles: interrupt the major goals of the script  Obstacles are well remembered Causal Connections - Causal relation: an event that results in the occurrence of another event - When participants were asked to quickly judge whether two words are causally related, they were faster when the cause came before the effect - HOWEVER, when asked if two words were associated, their response times were not influence by the order of the two words - IMPORTANT VARIABLE in determining the judged importance of statements in a store is the number of causal connections linked to the statement - Trabasso and Sperry o Subjects rated events with more causal connections as more important and could recall them easier and faster (contratry to spreading activation models_ - Reder and Anderson o High-integration conditions: the two test sentences were preceded by causally related statements  MORE high-integrated statements facilitated memory retrieval (6 statements was better than 3) o Low-integration conditions: the additional facts were not causally related to the test statements  LESS low-integrated statements facilitated memory retrieval (3 facts better than 6) - Both causal connections and goals c
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