Chapter 8 - visual imagery and spatial cognition. Visual images: mental representation of a stimulus thought to share at least some properties with a pictorial or spatial depiction of the stimulus. Besides visual, other mental images exist like auditory images, cutaneous (feeling) Visual images cannot be seen, counted, or controlled by others. Those who use imagery are better able to recall information than those who do not. Martin et al. , (1999) showed athletes who spends time mentally imagining an excellent performance tend to perform better. Ayduk et al. (2002) suggest imagery can be used to cope with negative emotional events by visualizing cool aspects of experience (e. g. , where they were in space) Many but not all involve construction of mental pictures or images. Mnemonics: strategies to facilitate retention and later retrieval of information. Method of loci: method that requires learner to visualize an ordered series of physical locations as mnemonic cues for a list of information.