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Psychology 2310A/B
Rod Martin

Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (cont’d) Sexual Dysfunctions Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions - different from paraphilia, inability to have erection or orgasm - highly motivated to get better - therapy is highly effective Behavioural “Sex Therapy” approaches Masters & Johnson, originally developed by them - a behavioural approach with education - a learned problem therefore it can be unlearn as well - assumption that sex is normal and natural - helping them to have good sex - giving info on sexual response cycle and anatomy, exercises and homework - a couple problem rather than individual problem, both needs to work on it Education Eliminate performance anxiety - anxiety interferes with performance - need to reduce focus on performance Sensate focus exercise - encourage couple to have pleasure and enjoyment of eachother’s body without thinking about performance - take turns pleasuring eachother, but not allowed to touch genitals, breasts or intercourse - systematic desensitization technique Squeeze technique - For men with premature ejaculation - When he has an erection, need to squeeze his penis gently to cause the urge to have an orgasm to subsize Masturbation - Women have a hard time having orgasm through intercourse, better with masturbation - 95% have orgasm with masturbation - can bring this method with their partner Couple (Marital) therapy - therapist will recognize the problems with communication and conflict resolutions - personality disorders - what is interfering with their relationship Individual psychotherapy Medical interventions – drugs, surgery - men with erection dysfunction is the main one - Viagra - Drugs that dilate blood vessels, blood flow into the penis to have an erection - Widely used and advertised - Penile prosthesis, an implanted balloon in the penis to be pumped and inflate to have an erection - Not very common anymore Eating Disorders DSM-IV: Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa - Low body weight from normal - Refusing to eat Bulimia Nervosa - Binging and compensatory behaviour - Normal body weight DSM-5: Feeding and Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Binge-Eating Disorder - Getting a lot of research attention - Distinct from bulimia - They only binge eat but not compensatory behaviour - Tend to be overweight Children Disorders: Pica - In children mostly - Persistently eating non food material - Ex. Chalk, paint, sand - Can occur in adults too, but rarely Rumination Disorder - Constantly regurgitate their food Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder - Extremely picky eater - Underweight and malnourished - Not liking certain foods - Start in childhood, but can continue into adulthood Anorexia Nervosa (DSM-IV) Refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight for one’s age and height - Below 85% of their weight - Below 17.5% of their body fat mass index - Usually between 20-30 is the average - Really restrict their diet, don’t eat a lot Intense fear of gaining weight or being fat - Irrational thinking - Being overweight it terrible, worried Disturbance in body image - Don’t recognize they are malnourished - Don’t have any insight - See one part of their body as fat - Self esteem is very tied in with their weight and shape, will deny the seriousness Amenorrhea in women past puberty - Not have menstrual cycle periods - Stopped for 3 consecutive months - Lack of estrogen o In dsm5, they dropped this criteria Subtypes: Restricting Type - They maintain their low body weight with diet and fasting, excessive exercise Binge eating / Purging Type - Have eating binges, then engage in purging or use laxatives - Amore disturbing type than restricting - More psychological disturbances and medical complications Anorexia –Associated Features Depressive symptoms - Very common - Result from starving - Socially withdrawn - Can be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, a secondary to anorexia - When regain the weight, the depression will go away Obsessive-compulsive features - Overlap with anorexia to have OC traits about food in particular - Very preoccupied with recipes - Rituals around eating - Weighing and looking in the mirror to check Low self-esteem - Feel like they are losing control of their life - Tend to be perfectionists Medical complications Anemia, dehydration, low metabolism rate - Body slows down to conserve energy Electrolyte imbalance, endocrine abnormalities - Body becomes imbalance - Damages in liver, brain - Abnormal brain functioning and processing EEG abnormalities Erosion of dental enamel - From vomit stomach acid that eat away at their teeth Liver damage, cardiovascular problems - Have heart attacked even at a young age Osteoporosis - Body produces a lot of cord.. - Bones become more brittle, lead to broken bones - Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate from all mental disorde
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