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Psychology 2320A/B
Elizabeth Hayden

Chapter 1Important features that distinguish most child and adolescent disordersWhen adults seek services for children often is not clear whose problem it is Many children and adolescent problems involve failure to show expected developmental progress Many problem behaviors shown by children and youths are not entirely abnormal Interventions for children often are intended to promote further development rather than merely to restore a previous level of functioningHistory Children used to be considered servants not peopleKids with a mental handicap where abandoned or put to death Church thought they were possessed by the devil Legal acts that allowed people to kill stubborn children John Locke began a changebelieved in individual rights and that children should be raised with thought and care One of first documented situations was Itard working with a kid who was raised in the woods Victor Hollingworthmentally defective children were suffering from emotional and behavioral problemsleading to distinction between imbeciles and lunatics Moral insanity grew as a term for nonintellectual forms of abnormal child behaviorConcern for these disturbances began with 1 Advances in general medicine 2 Growing influence of philosophies saying that children need moral guidance Biological attributions Clifford beers recovered from psychosis argued that disorders were a disease Society went back to the idea that retardation was a disease that could spreadEarly psychological attributionsth Recognition of psychological influences emerged in the 20 century 2 major theories psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism shaping vs resolvingPsychoanalyticFreud believed disorders could be traced to early childhoodo Individuals have inborn drives and predispositions and experience is very influentialo His daughter Anna was instrumental in expanding his ideas to understand children o Melanie Kleinactions can be interpreted in terms of unconscious fantasyo Is having less influence lately because of the popularity of the descriptive approacho Lack of empirical validation but attracts considerable attention Nosologiesefforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories like the DSMattempt to find common denominators that describe disorders Behaviorismevidencebased treatment can be traced to rise of behaviorismo Early 1900s Pavlov and conditioningo Watson and little albertexpanded on Freuds theories in more scientific termso Famous for his theory of emotionsgive him and healthy child and he can turn them into whatever he wants by adulthoodEvolving forms of treatment 1900s psychodynamic approaches were the main forms of treatmentmost kids with disorders were institutionalized Spitzkids raised without adult contact developed severe problems 1950s behavior therapy emergedbased on operant and classical conditioning Progressive legislation Individuals with disabilities education act IDEA Kids must have IEPs individual education plansUnited nations general assembly adopted a convention protecting the rights of disabled peopleAbnormal behaviors in children and adolescents People dont focus enough on disabled individuals strong suits helps to have positive support Defining psychological disorderstraditionally been defined as a pattern of behavioral cognitive emotional or physical symptoms shown by an individual Associated with one of 3 prominent featureso Person shows distressfear or sadness o Degree of disability impairment that limit activityo Distress and disability increase the risk of further suffering or harmo Excludes circumstances where reactions are expectedLabels describe behavior not peopleOften challenged by stigmarefers to a cluster of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates fear rejection and avoidance Stigma may lead to diminished selfesteem isolation and hopelessness Hard to draw lines between what is normal or abnormalCompetence Ability to successfully adapt to the environment Reflected in kids ability to use internal and external resources to achieve adaptationsuccessful adaptation varies across cultures Developmental taskstell how children typically progress within each domainDevelopmental pathways Refers to the sequence and timing of particular behaviors and possible relationships between behaviors own timevisualize development as an active dynamic processMultifinalityconcept that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings Equifinalityconcept that similar outcomes stem from different early experiences and developmental pathways Individuals with the same disorder express features of their disturbances in different ways pathways leading to each disorder are numerous and interactiveRisk and resilience Risk factora variable that precedes a negative outcome of interest and increase the chances that the outcome will occur Protective factorpersonal or situational variable that reduces the chances for a child to develop a disorder Risk and protective factors should be thought of as process and not absolutes same event or condition can be either Kids can survive risky environments by using strong selfconfidence and copingresilienceindividual children may be resilient in regards to specific stressors but not others Protective triad of resources strengths of the individual family and schoolSignificance of mental health problems In 2020 behavioral health disorders will be the major cause of disability throughout the world 18 kids has a mental impairment Majority of kids with mental health problems dont get help many dont grow out of itChanging picture of childrens mental health We now can better distinguish between each disorder Increased early recognition of disordersmore younger kids and teens More recognition of problems like anxiety and depression Those disproportionately affected with mental health problems are o Children from disadvantaged neighborhoodso Children from abusive or neglectful familieso Children receiving inadequate child care o Children born with low birth weighto Children with parents with mental illness and substance abuse New problems changing the face of mental healthhomelessness immigrant families more working parents even higher rates of fetal survivalPoverty and socioeconomic disadvantage Especially detrimental for learning ability Leads to less education lowpaying jobs inadequate health care single parents May be due to the effect on prefrontal cortex development stemming from social inequalities of chronic poverty Associated with harsh inconsistent parenting and exposure to chronic stressSex differencesGirls and boys express problems differently but we dont know if its due to definitions reporting biases or differences in expression of problems Cant tell differences before age 3 boys show higher rates of early onset girls show more emotional disorders Internalizing problemsanxiety depression somatic complaints withdrawn behavior Externalizing problemsactingout behaviors aggression and delinquencySimilar rates of internalizing problems in childhood but girls show more later on Resilience in boys associated with a male role model structure some encouragement of emotional expression and rulesFor girls it is combining risk taking and independence with support from a femaleRace and ethnicity Most cultural anthropologists say race is a socially constructed concept not biological Once SES is controlled for almost no differences in rates between cultures Majority culture hasnt incorporated respect for the histories traditions and beliefs of other culturesdisproportionately high level of MD in minoritiesCultureValues beliefs and practices of a group contribute to the development and expression of a disorder Some disorders with strong neurobiological basis ex ADHD are less susceptible to cultural influenceSexual minority Mortality rates more than triple between late childhood and early adulthood Time in which sexual minority youths face multiple challenges LGBT more likely to be victimized by peers and family membershave higher rates of health problems depression suicide substance abuse and risky sex Lifespan implications Most severe when problem goes untreated 20 of the most seriously affected kids are likely to drop out of school and have life long social problems Demands on community health education and justice system are high Chapter 2 Emotional reactivity and expression are the ways in which infants and young children first communicate with the world around themComfort from caregivers helps them learn selfregulation
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