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Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2320A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Abnormal Psych: Chptr 1  ▯Intro to Normal & Abnormal   Beh in Children and Adolescents  Research studies in abnormal child psychology address: - defining what normal/abnormal beh for children of different ages, sexes, and ethnic and cultural backgrounds - identifying the causes and correlates of abnormal child psych - making predictions about long-term outcomes - developing and evaluating methods for treatment and/or prevention  Distinguish most child and adolescent disorders: - When adults seek services for children, it often is not clear whose “problem” it is - many child and adolescent problems involve failure to show expected developmental progress - many problem beh shown by children and youths aren’t entirely abnormal - intentions for children and adolescents often intended to promote further development, rather than merely to restore a previous level of functioning Historical Views and Breakthroughs   Help children develop = medical, educational, psychological resources and social philosophy  Children were considered servants of the state [Greece]  Scorned, abandoned, put to death; those with a physical or mental handicap, disability or deformity  Earliest interest in abnormal child beh; end of 18 century - 17 /18 century; 2/3 children died before their 5 birthday ( no antibiotics/medications) Emergence of Social Conscience   Before any real changes, it requires a philosophy of humane understanding in how society recognizes and addresses the special needs of some of its members  John Locke; influenced the beginnings of present-day attitudes and practices of childbirth and child rearing - believed in individual rights & children should be raised with thought/care  Victor of Aveyron (pg5);new era of a helping orientation toward special children, focused on care, treatment and training of what were then termed “mental defectives” - Victor = wild boy of Averyron (11-12yrs); lived alone in the woods - “mentally arrested” bc of social and educational neglect – Itard believed that environmental stimulation could humanize him (first time an adult tried to understand the mind and emotions of a special child and proved that a child with severe impairments could improve through appropriate training)  Hollingworth; mentally defective children were actually suffering from emotional and behavioural problems due to inept treatment by adults and lack of appropriate intellectual challenge - mental retardation (imbeciles) and psychiatric/mental disorders (lunatics)  Concern for the plight and welfare of children with mental and beh disturbances began to rise in conjunction with two important influences - advances in general medicine, physiology, and neurology, the moral insanity view of psychological disorders was replaced by the organic disease model (emphasized more humane forms of treatment) - growing influence of the philosophies of Locke and others led to the view that children needed moral guidance and support Early Biological Attributions   19 century; illness, disease and mental illness were biological problems  Masturbatory Insanity; first “disorder” unique to children and adolescents - was a form of mental illness just over a hundred years ago, originated from religious views th - 19 century; though shifted to focus on the presumed negative effects on mental health and n.s. functioning - most freq. mentioned cause of psychopathology in children - importance of scientific skepticism in confirming or disconfirming new theories and explanations for abnormal beh  Beers; mental illness was a form of disease (biological disease model – progressive and irreversible) - one could do was to prevent the most extreme manifestations by strict punishment and to protect those not affected  Locke argued; rather than viewing knowledge as a form of protection, society returned to the view that mental illness were diseases that could spread if left unchecked Early Psychological Attributions   Conceptualize and understand abnormal child psych; bio influences must be balanced with developmental and cultural factors - medically based view’ it is a disorder or disease residing within the person unfortunately led to neglect of the essential role of a person’s surroundings, context and relations and interactions th  Emerged in 20 century  Two theoretical paradigms helped shape these emerging psychological and environmental influences: psychoanalytic theory and behaviourism  Freud; individuals have inborn drives and predispositions that strongly affect their development and experiences play a role - first time menral disorders were not viewed as inevitable, ppl could be helped  Psychoanalytic theory; advances in our ways of thinking about the causes/treatments of mental disorders - Freud; first to give meaning to concept of mental disorder by linking it to childhood experiences - personality and mental health outcomes had multiple roots  Nosologies; the efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories – Diagnostic and Stats Manual attempt to find common denominators that describe the manifestations of a disorder at every age  Behaviorism; 1900s - Pavlov; classical conditioning – elimination of children’s fears - Watson; father of behaviorism – explain Freuds concepts in more scientific terms  Watson; explain terms such as unconscious and transference using the language of conditioned emotional responses - ‘Give me a dozen healthy infants…’ - raising children is part skill, part wisdom and part luck  Little Albert; fear of white rats and furry white objects - everytime the infant reached to touch the rat, Watson would strike a steel bar with a hammer (the infant first showed no fear towards the rat), after repeated attempts , Albert would break down and cry. -Watson’s brand of behaviorism; emphasis on the prediction and control of human beh Evolving Forms of Treatment   1930 to 1950; quiet time for research and treatment in abnormal child psych  Rene Spitz; infants raised in institutions without adult physical contact and stimulation developed severe physical and emotional problems  1950s; beh therapy emerged as a systematic approach to the treatment of child and family disorders - operant and classical conditioning - stressed resolution of internal conflicts and unconscious motives Progressive Legislation   Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; mandates free and appropriate public education for any child with special needs in the least restrictive environment for that child  United Nations General Assembly; protect the rights of persons with disabilities around the world - shift from addressing the “special needs” to realizing their rights and removing the b
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