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Psychology 2320A/B

Chptr 6: Abnormal Psych  ▯ Conduct Problems Description of Conduct Problems  Conduct problems or antisocial beh; are terms used to describe a wide range of age-inappropriate actions and attitudes of a child that violate family expectation, societal norms and the personal or property rights of others - disruptive and rude-violating beh ranging from annoying to relatively minor beh - grow up in extremely unfortunate family and neighborhood circumstances where they experience physical abuse, neglect, poverty, etc Context, Costs and Perspectives   Antisocial beh varies in severity, from minor disobedience to fighting, some beh decrease with age, whereas others ^ with age and opportunity, behs are more common in boys than girls during childhood, this difference narrows in adolescence  Legally, conduct problems are defined as delinquent or criminal acts, labeled the term juvenile delinquency; describes children who hhave broken a law, ranging from sneaking into a movie without paying to homicide  From a psychological perspective, conduct problems fall along a continuous dimension of externalizing beh, which includes a mixture of impulsive, overactive, aggressive and rule-breaking acts - overt-covert dimension, ranges from overt visible acts such as fighting (negative, irritable) to covert hidden acts such as lying or stealing (less social, more anxious) - destructive-non-destructive dimension, ranges from acts such as cruelty to animals or physical assault to nondestructive beh such as arguing or irritability . Figure 6.2 page 163  From a psychiatric perspective, they are defined as distinct mental disorders based on DSM symptoms - disruptive beh are persistent patterns of antisocial beh, represented by the categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) -DSM 5; dimensional measures that are sensitive to both the severity of children`s conduct problems and to subclinical levels of symptoms (troubling symptoms too few in number to qualify for a categorical diagnosis of CD or ODD) DSM­IV­TR: Defining Features   Oppositional defiant disorder ODD; children display an inappropriate recurrent pattern of stubborn, hostile, disobedient, and defiant beh – usually appears at 8 years of age  Conduct Disorder CD; children display a repetitive and persistent pattern of severe aggressive and antisocial acts that involve inflicting pain on others or interfering with the rights of others through physical and verbal aggression, stealing or committing acts of vandalism - co-occurring problems such as ADHD, academic deficiencies and poor relations to peers  Childhood-onset conduct disorder; display at least one symptom of the disorder before age 10 - more likely to be boys, show more aggressive symptoms, account for a disproportionate amount of illegal activity and persist in their antisocial beh over time  Adolescent-onset conduct disorder; do not … - likely to be girls as boys and do not display the severity or psychopathology that characterizes the childhood-onset group  Much overlap between ODD and CD, questions whether they are a separate disorder - symptoms of ODD emerge 2 to 3 years before CD symptoms  Persistent aggressive beh and CD in childhood may be a precursor of antisocial personality disorder APD, a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others, as well as involvement in multiple illegal beh - 40% of children with CD develop APD - adolescents with APD may also display psychopathic features, which are defined as a pattern of callous, manipulative, deceitful and remorseless beh – the menacing side of human nature - callous and unemotional CU interpersonal style, characterized by traits such as lacking in guilt, not showing empathy, not showing emotions and related traits of narcissism and impulsivity > also lack a behavioural inhibition Associated Characteristics   Verbal IQ is consistently lower than performance IQ in children with CD, suggesting a specific and pervasive deficit in language  Cool executive function deficits are thought to be more characteristic of children with ADHD, whereas hot executive function deficits are more characteristic of children with conduct problems  Peer rejection in elementary school is a strong risk factor for adolescent conduct problems  Reactive-aggressive children, display a hostile attributional bias, which means they are more likely to attribute hostile and mean-spirited intent to other children, esp when the intentions of others are unclear  Family problems are among the strongest and most consistent of CD - General family disturbances; parental mental health problems, family history of antisocial beh, limited resources - specific disturbances in parenting practises and family functioning; excessive use of harsh discipline, lack of supervision, lack of emotional support and involvement and parental disagreement > two types are interrelated Accompanying Disorders and Symptoms  Most suffer from one or more additional disorder, most commonly ADHD, depression and anxiety - more than 50% of children with CD also have ADHD > shar
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