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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Text Notes.docx

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Kelly Olson

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Post-Freudians went on to call attention to the diversity of human motives and to mental and emotional processes in personality development after early childhood that had
been neglected before
Ego psychology -
more attention is on the concept and functions of ego and "self"
Ego has crucial functions that may be independent of underlying unconscious motives
Ego deals with higher order
With this growing role of the ego, the person is viewed as a more competent, potentially creative problem solver, engaged in much more than the management of instincts
that press for discharge
Personality is rooted in social relations and in the context of culture -- it is not isolated within the psyche of the individual and in the drama of the relations with the
immediate family in the first few years of life
Anna Freud and the ego defense mechanisms
Defense mechanisms are those through which the ego does much of its peacekeeping work -- tries to subordinate the impulses, test reality, and accommodate the
demands of the superego in the lifelong war within the psyche
Defenses are designed to transform these wishes into an acceptable form for the ego -- energy is exchange and directed toward different objects, mediated by the
mechanisms of defense
Transformation of motives
If sadistic aggressive impulses cannot be repressed but still are too threatening to self-acceptance, they might be transformed into a more socially sanctioned
form, such as an interest in surgery
If his anger is evident to those who know him well, but truly hidden from his own awareness, then repression may be at work as a defense
In genuine repression, if you push the person to face the underlying feelings that are being avoided unconsciously, it may only increase the defensive attempts
to reject the interpretation and avoid the emotion -- makes the defense more intense
Depth of defenses are greater in early childhood because threats are really frightening and they are most vulnerable
Projection -
the person's own unacceptable impulses are inhibited and the source of the anxiety is attributed to another person
Gives relief because it reduces anxiety
Reaction formation
Reaction formation -
occurs when a person transforms an anxiety-producing impulse into its opposite
This is like when someone is really against gay people but really they are gay themselves
People hate in others the most what they cannot accept about themselves
Study: when watching the gay movies, it was only the men high in homophobia who experience sexual arousal
Rationalization -
a defense that involves trying to deceive oneself by making rational excuses for unconscious impulses that are unacceptable
Like if a man has hostile impulses toward his wife - he will stay at work long with reasons like "hectic schedule" so that he experiences less guilt

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Sublimation -
an ego defense important in the development of culture
Redirects impulses from an object that is sexual or aggressive to one that is social in character
Boy = desire to kill father = transforms into a later choice of surgery as a career
Carl Jung
Began as an admirer of Freud, later became a dissenter and developed own theory
Analytical psychology -
it claims a
collective unconscious --
an inherited foundation of personality (inherited memories)
Jung believed that the human mind contains not only a personal unconscious, but also an inherited collective unconscious; it contains conscious images
and patterns that reflect the human history of the species
Archetypes/primordial images -
the contents of the collective unconscious
Have never been in consciousness
Ex. God, fairy godmother, wise old man, etc
In his view, the psyche included not only a conscious side but also a
shadow aspect
that is unconscious -- personal growth involves integrating this shadow with the
rest of personality
Animus -
a masculine, assertive element included in the unconscious of every female
Anima -
a feminine, passive element included in the unconscious of every male
Four basic ways of experiencing the world (every one differs in their degree of each one of these):
Sensing - knowing through sensory systems
Intuition - quick guessing about what underlies sensory inputs
Feeling - focus on the emotional aspect of beauty of ugliness, pleasantness or unpleasantness
Thinking - abstract thought, reasoning
Extraversion-introversion for Jung are divided: one side is dominant in the conscious life while the other influences the unconscious side of the personality
Psychic energy -- we need to understand humans not only in terms of their past but also in light of their purposes and goal strivings
Jung, like Freud -- abnormal behaviours are expressions of the unconscious mind, also expressed in dreams
The focus of Jungian psychology became the study of people's relations to their unconscious, both personal and collective
Mandala -
a magic circle archetype -- symbolizes the self, containing designs often divided into four parts
Alfred Adler
Founder of the Society for Individual Psychology
His contributions have become so ordinary and intuitive now
Organ inferiority
- physical weakness -- recognition of the infant's profound helplessness, a state that makes him/her vulnerable to any biological organ inferiority
or weakness
Compensatory motivation -
this person strives for perfection and superiority to make up for it -- contrasts with the id impulses featured at the driving
forces in Freud's theory
If these compensatory efforts fail, person may develop an
inferiority complex
-- feelings of extreme inadequacy
Sibling rivalry
- he focused on the environmental forces and the social world as determinants of personality development
Social feeling, courage, and common sense constitute the set of characteristics that mark well functioning, health people
Cope with reality with confidence and without excessive fear and also without unrealistic fantasies
Erich Fromm
Fromm takes account of the important role of society in the development and expression of personality
According to Fromm, people are primarily social beings to be understood in terms of their relations to others
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