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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Text Notes (Unfinished).docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2550A/B
Professor
Kelly Olson
Chapter
10

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CHAPTER 10
BEHAVIOURAL CONCEPTIONS
Focus on the level of learning through conditioning
Rather than probe the dreams and free associations of neurotic patients or theorize broadly about human nature, behavioural researchers sought a system that would be
objectively testable, preferably by lab techniques
Studied the learning mechanisms through which certain events (stimuli) become associated with particular behaviours or responses
THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH TO PSYCHODYNAMICS: DOLLARD AND MILLER
Psychodynamic behaviour theory -
the major effort to integrate some of the fundamental ideas of Freudian psychodynamic theory with the concepts, language, and methods
of experimental laboratory research on behaviour and learning
Dollard and Miller
Neurotic conflict: The core
Neurotic conflict
involves a clash between id impulses seeking expression and internalized inhibitions that censor and restrain the expression of those impulses in
accord with the culture's taboos
Freud
Language of learning theory - strong fear is a learned drive that motivates a conflict concerning "goal responses" for other strong drives (sex/aggression)
Dollard and Miller
RECASTING CONFLICT IN LEARNING TERMS
Whereas Freud developed his ideas about conflict from inferences regarding id-ego-superego clashes in his neurotic patients, Dollard and Miller tested their ideas in
controlled experiments with rats
To generate
ambivalence
(approach-avoidance tendencies), the rats were given a quick electric shock while they were eating -- the hungry rat started toward the food but
stopped and hesitated before reaching it
Goal gradients -
used to analyze these conflicts -- they are changes is response strengths as a function of distance from the goal object
The hungry rats learned to run the maze to get the food that was waiting for them at the end, thus developing
approach tendencies
According to Miller's analysis of approach-avoidance conflicts, both the tendency to approach and the tendency to avoid grow stronger as one moves closer to the goal
Tendency to avoid increases faster
Maximum conflict is reached when the two gradients cross, because at this point the opposing motives are equal in strength
Primary needs and learning
Newborn infant begins life with a set of innate or
primary biological needs
Although these are innate, the behaviours required to satisfy them involve learning
Dollard and Miller -- the four important factors in the learning process:
Drive (motivation)
Cue (stimulus)
Response (act or thought)
Reinforcement (reward)
Learning
- the process by which a particular response and a cue stimulus become connected
Drive
Any strong stimuli may impel action and thus serve as drives
The stronger the stimulus, the greater its drive or motivating function
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