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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Text Notes.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
Kelly Olson

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CHAPTER 14 DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEVEL Historical rootsSocial cog approach to personalitylate 1960s Three theoretical camps Freudians students searching for broad personality trait dimensions and radical behaviourists concerned with conditioning andstimulusresponseLinking cognition and social behaviourTraditional behaviourism stimuli control behaviourBut actually the perceivers mental representations and cognitive transformations of the stimuli can determine or even reverse their impactShown in research on the factors influencing how long preschool children will actually sit still alone in a chair waiting for a desired but delayed outcome answer depends on how the children mentally represent the rewardsFor ex they can think of the pretzels as little logs and wont care to waitCognition is what influences behaviour now the external stimulus Kelly and Rogers were rightIN FOCUS 141 George Kelly A bridge to the social cognitive levelThe core of Kellys psychology was his belief that personal constructs are the basic units and that it is personal constructs rather than stimuli that are crucial The greatest incompleteness of Kellys thinking was that it provided a powerful theory of constructing but gave few guides for linking peoples constructions eitherto their past or to their future performanceThe cognitive revolutionCognitive revolutionstarted as a revolt against the thendominant behaviourism but went on to literally transform psychology and all the behavioural sciencesBehaviourism insisted that scientific psychology is possible only by focusing on observable stimuli and responsesCognitive revolution rejected this view and gave birth to cognitive psychologyCog psych led to social cognitive theories in personality psychALBERT BANDURA SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY He showed that people learn cognitively by observing others not merely by experiencing rewards for what they do themselvesMuch social learning occurs through observation without any direct reinforcement administered to the learnerLearning through observation modelingObservational learningaka modelinglearning that occurs without the learners receiving direct external reinforcementOccurs even without the persons ever performing the learned response at all ex learning how to kill by watching it on TVOccurs when people watch others or when they attend to their surroundings to physical events or to symbols such as words or picturesObserv learning is often indirect others can observe something and then tell us about itEx Mass mediahighly effective means of communication of experiences Study children who watched film of an aggressive model punching a Bobodoll they spontaneously imitated the same aggressiveness when put in a similarsituationStudy children who watched violent cartoons became more assaultive toward peers than those who watched nonviolent cartoons Exposure to models who speak the language leads to relatively rapid acquisition while shaping direct reinforcement would take longerobservation isimportant for learning languagesObserving other peoples outcomes What happens to them might happen to you Your expectations about the outcomes of a particular course of action depend not only on what has happened to you in the past but also on what you haveobserved happening to othersWe are more likely to do something if we have observed another person model obtain positive consequences for a similar response Observation also influences the emotions we perceiveits possible to vicariously learn an intense emotional response to a stimulus
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