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Chapter 18

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
Kelly Olson
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER18 CULTUREANDPERSONALITY  Mappingculturaldifferenceswiththebigfive  Ruthbenedict- firstresearchertoexaminethe relationshipbetweencultureandpersonality  Shedescribedtwopersonalitytypesofthesouthwestpueblosofmexico:the apollonianandthedionysian  Apollonian  Soberandmistrustfulofexcessive behaviour  Dionysian  Generalizedloveforexcess  Frenchare loweronagreeablenessthan americans  Crossculturalandintraculturaldifferences  Differencesamongculturalgroupsin theiroveralltraitlevelson ratingscales  Formanyclassesofbehaviour,within-culturevariability isgreaterthan between-culturevariability  The mostdifficultproblemishowtoaccountformountingevidencethatculturalgroupmemberssometimesbehave accordingtotheirculture'sdominant personality -andsometimesdonot  Individualismvscollectivism  Individualisminvolvesa senseoftheselfasautonomous,devotedtothe pursuitofpersonalgoals,andrelativelyindependentandselffocused  Collectivismisdefinedby closerconnectionstogroupsandfamily  Sensitivetogoalsofthe family andgroupswithwhichtheyare connected  Evenasadults,theyremaininterdependentinsocialrelationships, values,andgoalpursuits  Problem:the broadtraittermscapture somethingonlyabouttheaverage tendenciesandcharacteristicsofthe majorityofpeople within the culture  Roughestimatedsuggestthatthesedescriptionsmay fitabout60percentofthepeopleina culture  Cultureasasharedmeaningsystem  Newapproachviewsculture asa sharedmeaningsystem  Theperson'sculturalmeaningsystemincludesdistinctiveviewsaboutwhatthe worldislikeandwhatdifferentsituationsandbehavioursmeanandcallfor  Containsconceptsandfeelingsaboutthenatureoftheselfanditsideals,andtherelationshipsbetweenselfandothers  Includesbasicgoals,values,emotions,standards,selfregulatory rules  Theseunitsofculturearesharedwithin the meaningsystemofthe particularcommunity  Culturalgroupsdifferinthe goals,values,andbeliefsthatare psychologically availableandchronicallyaccessible  Stigmatizedgroupmembersina culturealsooftenhavesharedexperiencesthatmorereadilyactivatetheirconcernsaboutdiscrimination comparedto nonstigmatizedgroupmembers  Tendencytowardselfenhancementin USvsjapan - expressedin particularculturallydefinedsituationsandcontexts  Cultureinfluencespersonality hugely,notonlyin terms ofthe goalsandimportantbeliefs,butalsointheway thatsituationsare representedandtheirparticular psychologicalfeatures  Theseunitsare onlyactivatedandguidebehaviourin relation tospecificsituations  Culturaldifferencesintheorganizationofpersonality?:if...then...Culturalsignatures  Culturesdiffernotonlyin termsofhow muchparticular qualitiestendtobefoundbutalsoin how their meaningsystemisorganizedandexpressed  If...then...Culturalsignatures:  Iffeaturesofa situationactivatethisculturallysharedsubnetwork, individualsmaygeneratesimilarreactionstothatsituation  Insituationsthatdon'tactivatea culturallysharedpsychologicalfeature,groupmembers' responsesmaynotbealike,andmaybe similartothose ofanothergroup  Evenwhentwopeople fromtwodifferentcultureshave the sameaverage levelofpositive moods, theyshow distinctive,highlyindividualizedpatternsinwhenthey doordonotexperience positive moods  Asianamericansnot onlyelaborate,butalsomaintain,stable "relationship-specificselves"in waysthatdependon whotheyarewithandthe particularcontext, and didsomuchmorethaneuroamericans  Whileselfconceptionsineuroamericanstendedtobemoreglobal intheirselfconceptsregardless ofcontext, theasian americanswerecharacterizedasmore contextualizedbuttemporarily stablein theirifthenrelationshipsignatures  Amongafricanamericans, certain keyfeaturesofthe case,likethedetectivewhoplantedevidencetoinfluenceaconviction, activatedtheirwidelysharedcognitions aboutunfairpolice treatmenttowardblack  Anintegratedsystemviewofcultureandpersondynamics  Asystemview ofculture recognizesthatculturalvaluesandbeliefsystemsshapetheinstitutionsandeverydaypracticesof a culturalgroup,whichthenthemselves leadtoparticularculturalaffordancesoropportunitiesforthepractice,expression,andreinforcementofthesecultural values  Cultureofhonour  Triedtoreconcile the viewofa violentsouthwitha viewofa charmingandgenteelsouth  Proposesthatstrongvigilance todisrespectandreadyuse ofviolence toprotectpropertyandnamehave overtimeaffectedsocialpracticesandnorms - symbolizedingamesthatamounttotestsofmanhood  INFOCUS18.2Usingthe game ofchickentostudythe culture ofhonour  Thesouthernerswhohadbeenbumpedwaitedlongerbeforetheysteppedaside toletthe secondconfederate through,indicating a moreaggressive response torestorehonourcharacterizedbysouthern men  Theywerealsoratedbyobserversasmoreaggressiveanddominantandgave a firmerhandshake  Amongparticipantswhohadnotbeenbumped,thesouthernerswere ratedasmorepolite andlessaggressivethanthe northerners  Displayedclearifthenpattern,reflectinga culture ofhonorinwhichbothtypesofbehaviourare predictedbuteachisexpectedin differentsituations  Summary:thelinkbetweentheculturalandthepersonalmeaningsystems  Intime,eachindividualdevelopsa personalmeaningsystemthatincorporatessome componentsfrom thesharedculturalmeaningsystemwhileother components reflectuniquelifeexperiences  Culturallyspecificpersonality dispositions  Becauseafricanamericansin the USareespeciallylikelytobe sociallyexcluded, marginalized, ormistreatedonthe basisoftheirrace,membersofthis groupin particular maydeveloprace basedrejection sensitivity  Thisprocessingdynamic,while stable overtime,isrelevantandactivatedonlyinsituationswhere discrimination onthebasisofrace isapplicable,and doesnotnecessarilycharacterizetheindividual'sresponsesandbehavourin othercontexts  Summary:interactinginfluencesinculture-personalitylinks  INFOCUS18.3Studyingrace-basedrejection sensitivity  Whenpeopleexperience rejection from parents, peers, orotherimportantfiguresinthe formofabuseorneglect,they becomevulnerabletodeveloping anxiousexpectationsofrejection  Theseanxiousexpectationslowerthe thresholdforperceivingrejection,andoncethe rejection isperceived,activate intense,"hot" reactionstothe perceived rejection GENDERANDSEXDIFFERENCES  Genderisa conceptthatreferstothe socialmeaningofbeinga male ora female  Genderisoneofthe mostpowerfuldeterminantsofhow peopleviewthemselvesandhow otherpeopletreatthem  Oneofthe mostimportantpsychologicalcategorizationsthatpeople make,andonethathasbecomeincreasinglycontroversial  Basedon manychallengestorigidgenderstereotypes  Overviewandissues  Humanneonatalbehaviourindicates somesexdifferencesinactivitylevelandinreactivity toavarietyofstimuli  Sexdifferencesoccurin infants'responsestofacialstimuliduringthefirstyearoflife  Girlsvocalizedandsmiledmoreandshowedgreaterdifferentialexpression tothe facialstimuli  Boyslooked longer  Age2-3months:girlsare moresensitive toskin exposurethanboys  Newborn femalesseemtoreactmore to the removal ofa coveringblanket,andshow
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