Psychology 2550A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Personal Advertisement, Social Rejection, Central Processing Unit

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Chapter 16 The Personality System: Integrating the Levels
What has to be integrated: contributions from each level
Trait dispositional level: 2 types of consistency
Basic requirement of an integrative personality system has to be able to account for the consistencies in the behavioural
expressions of individual differences
Overall average differenecs in types of behaviour (broad traits)
Have seen that researchers at trait dispositional level searched for meaningful ways in which people are different from each
othe o the hole i.e. Tpe 1 osiste
o Showed when people are perceived as more sociable than others, etc
Found people differ reliably and stably from each other in their rated personality characteristics and overall levels of
different kinds of behaviour
differences b/w people at this level have been described and classified systematically on many dimensions or factors, called
If…then…situation-behaviour signatures of personality
distinct if then behaviour patterns do exist and are highly informative about the nature of personality and its expressions
these findings demonstrated that these patterns of variability are stable and form Type 2 consistency
Bio level
linked personality to its bio bases and human evolutionary history
connections b/w genes, brain and focuses on their interactions in the genesis of individual differences
also shows value of applying concepts and methods from the study of human evolution and adaption to understand a wide
range of social phenomena
now study thoughts feeling and person constructs of interest w/ fMRIs
o allowing one to trace how what we think and understand relates to our brain activities and to behaviour
sign of how far the field has moved that mental phenomena not long ago considered beyond the pale of scientific inquiry
are now the central subject matter for brain research
Psychodynamic motivational level
this level discovered that people have motives and feelings that are anxiety provoking
self protective mechanisms and defenses may develop to reduce anxiety and conflicts that these motives and feelings
called attention to the importance of processes outside awareness, and provided methods nad measures to help deal with
a wide variety of personality problems and disorder
also changed the conception of human nature and personality
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i Fued’s view, people are the product of the conflicts and psychosexual experiences within the first few years of life,
victimized by unconscious wishes and conflicts that undermined adaptive, rational behaviour
Post-Freudians like Erik Erikson called attention to the psychosocial and not just instinctual psychosexual nature of human
o Recognizes challenges, crises and changes occur over life span
o Appreciated unconscious; also incorporated focus on ego development, cognitive process, attachment and
interpersonal relationship and the construction of the self
Behaviour-Conditioning Level
What we do is always linked to the particulars of the situations and therefore the specific situation had to be incorporated
into the search for regularities in behaviour
Created methods for examining experimentally the relationship b/w changes in conditions and changes in social behaviour,
opening the way to research basic process of learning
Provided methods for clearly observing and studying behaviour and it links to the situations that preceded it and the
consequences that followed
Phenomenological-humanistic level
Showed that the effects of situations depend on how the perceiver construes them, on the psych situation as experienced
Called attention to how the ways in which people view situations and themselves influence how they feel and how they
cope w/ life challenges and stresses
Do’t hae to e iti of thei iolog, ad thei iteal states ad epeiees  alteig ho the ostue o itepet
Gave center stage to experience of the self as an active agent that can act to influence the life course
Social Cognitive
Expanded understanding of the role of social learning in personality development, noting crucial importance of cognition
and observation in the learning processes most relevant for personality
Importance of individual differences in social cognitive person variables, then investigated how individuals can self-regulate
and modify the impact of situations on their own behaviour in light of their LT goals and values
Provided model for beginning to combine the contributions of multiple levels and to build a more integrated science
Toward integration: characteristics of the personality system
Application of neural network info processing models to personality
Initially in 70s efforts made to integrative personality models w/ comprehensive view began w/ efforts to apply cognitive
theories of social information
Current models of personality as an information processing system draw instead on neural network models in
contemporary cognitive neuroscience
o Not on computer, but on biological systems, in particular the systems of connections w/in the human brain
through which the neurons are interconnected and process info
Developed he elized poe of ai to pefo ople ifo poessig does’t oe fo easoig the haateizes
the digital opute’s etal poessig uit CPU
instead from the pattern of interconnections among a number of simple units (neurons)
a network information processing model focuses not just on how much of a particular quality a person has
rather, emphasizes the way the persons internal mental representations or schemas are related to each other and
interconnected to form a system that functions as an organized network structure
in the language of modern cognitive psych and connectionist theories, the nodes in the network are constructs, and their
relationships or connections are represented by links
there are excitatory (activating) links and inhibitory (deactivating) links in the networks
o more often concepts are activate in your mind, stronger excitatory link
the retrieval of info is mediated by the spreading of activation among the interconnected nodes
o some nodes are only weakly connected with each other or unassociated
An Application: cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS)
CAPS developed w/ goal of integrating ideas from social cognition and cognitive neural network models of the mind into a
framework for comprehensive personality system
Although some of the origins of CAPS are rooted in the social cognitive model of personality, it was designed to take
account of the enduring contributions coming from all levels of analysis
It’s a eta theo - a broad framework that’s kept ope to hae as e fidigs eoe aailale
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