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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Intro to Personality.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2550A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 13: The Internal View EXPLORING INTERNAL EXPERIENCE Internal experiences change what people become and influence the types of problems and coping strategies they develop People experience different types of discrepancies between different aspects of the self, and these discrepancies influence their subsequent emotions and behaviour in predictable ways Carl Rogers  First suggested discrepancies develop between various mental representations of the self; eg. Actual self (representation of yourself as you) vs ideal self (represent of who you want to be) OR actual self vs ought self (representation of who you believe you should be) Higgins (1987)  Such discrepancies may be experiences not only from one’s own vantage point, but also from that of significant others  Found that various discrepancies have predictable emotional consequences and that different emotion lead to different patterns of coping with the perceived self- discrepancies Coping methods:  Reevaluate the negative interpretation of past painful events  Change actual behaviour to match an important standard Start to make inferences about a person’s internal experience based primarily upon what we see him doing rather than upon what we have seen other people doing (stereotypes/theoretical constructs) Eg. Ask the individual to depict themselves (self-report) – have normally been used for the clinician to make inferences rather than viewed as a means of conveying the client’s view himself Self-Assessment:  Is self-assessment accurate? Can address by examining whether people’s self- assessment can predict their own future behaviour o Has been found that simple self-reports may be as valid, or sometimes better, predictors than more sophisticated/indirect tests o Eg, attitude statements have been one of the best predictors for success in the Peace Corps  Sometimes people lack either the information of the motivation to foretell their own behaviour or are motivated not to reveal  Sometimes future behaviour is determined by variables not in the person’s control Q-Sort Technique:  Problem: different individuals may use different words, phrases, and expressions to describe the same experience – difficult to compare one’s description to another person’s  Q-Sort: consists of many cards, each with a printed statement or items describing oneself – clients instructed to sort the cards to describe themselves as they see themselves currently by placing cards in separate piles according to their applicability (ranging from least like them to most like them) o requires the cards to be arranged in a predetermined distribution (eg 5 cards in this pile, 15 in this pile) therefore, if one averages scores, everyone will get the same score o can also be used to describe their ideal self or a relationship, or characteristics associated with successful performance in a given task  the goal is the pattern of various characteristics within each person Interviews: use interviews to observe how the individual interprets himself and his experiences, regardless of the validity of the data he provides Semantic Differential:  used to study what different stimuli, events, or other experiences mean to the individual (personal significance)  asked to indicate the meanings of diverse words, phrases, and concepts by rating them on scales (bipolar, 7 point scales)  technique is objective and flexible  three factors emerge o evaluative factor: “good-bad” enter most extensively into how people characterize themselves, their experiences, and other people o potency: “strong-weak”, “masculine – feminine” o activity: “active-passive”, “hot-cold” Non-Verbal:  significant communication among people is often nonverbal – facial expressions, movements, and gestures; researchers look for meaning and effects of nonverbal expressions Psychobiography: intensive study of individual lives  provide comprehensive psycholog
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