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Chapter 8

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
James M Olson
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER8 PSYCHODYNAMICAPPLICATIONSANDPROCESSES APPLICATIONSTOPERSONALITYASSESSMENT  Goalofpsychotherapy istohelptheperson revealunconsciousmotives  Thecorebeneaththemask  Aperson'sovertactionsacrossseeminglysimilarsituations oftenseeminconsistent-theseinconsistenciesaresuperficialthoughbecausethere areunderlying motivesthatdrovetheperson consistentlyoveryears  Basicmotivesare consistent,buttheirovertbehavioursare disguisedacrosssituations  Relyingontheclinician  Psychodynamicinterpretation ofa person'sbehaviourdependmoreon the clinician'sintuitionsthanon tests  The meritofsuchassessmentsdependsontwothings: 1. Theevidencesupportingthetechniquesupon whichthe psychologistrelies 2. Thevalueofclinicaljudgementitself  Projectivemethods  Maincharacteristicisthe open-endedwayinwhichthe testingsituationisusuallystructured  Thepurpose ofthe testisusuallydisguisedandtheperson isgivenfreedomtorespondin anywaythathe orshelikes  Psychoanalytically orientedassessorsfavourprojective techniquesbecausethey assumethatthe"unconsciousinnerlife" isatleastpartially "projected"andrevealed inresponsestotheambiguousprojectivetestsituation  Twoprojective techniques:Rorschachandthe ThematicApperception Test(TAT)  Stillremainthe mostcommonlyusedpersonalityassessmentprocedures,eventhoughtheyhave problems:  Boththe reliability andthevalidity oftheRorschachhavebeenheavilydisputed  Noevidencethatthe findingsreflectedtheperson'sunconsciousmental states  TheRorschach  Consistsofa seriesofinkblots on10separatecards  Theindividualisinstructedtolookatit andsayeverythingthatthe inkblotcouldresemble orlooklike  Examinerinquiresintothedetailsoftheperson'sinterpretation ofeachblot  Thematicapperceptiontest(TAT)  Examinedtheperson'sfantasiesasrevealedbystoriestoldtoasetofpictures  Consistsofa seriesofpicturesandone blankcard  Askedtodescribewhatis happeningin eachpicture  Recurringthemesarebelievedtounderliethatperson'sunderlyingneeds  ApplyingpsychodynamicclinicalinferencestoGaryW.:  Thepsychologicalreportdone onGary --now,mostclinicianswouldchoose tointegratetheoriesfromalllevelsofanalysistounderstandanindividual MURRAY,THEHARVARDPERSONOLOGISTS,ANDHIGHERMOTIVES  Harvardpersonologists -providedanewmodelcalled personology fortheintensivepsychodynamicstudy ofindividuallives,anddevoteditselftotheportrayalofpersonsin depth  Murray,White,andtheir otherHarvardcolleagues  InfluencedbyFreud  Theirstudentswentontostudyhuman motivesthatare usefulfor understandingthe goalsthatdifferentpeopleenduringlypursuewithvaryingdegreesof intensity  Studyinglivesindepth  Theyfocusedonintensivelong-termstudiesofrelativelysmallsamplesofpeople  Explorationin Personality  Examplesoftopicsincludedin the studyoflivesby the Harvardpsychologists:  Personalhistory  Family relationsandchildhoodmemories  Sexualdevelopment  Presentdilemmas  Abilitiesandinterests  Aestheticpreferences  Levelofaspiration  Ethicalstandards  Imaginalproductivity  Musicalreveries  Dramaticproductions  Assessmentstrategy:Diagnosticcouncil  Theassessorsformedtheirimpressions ofthe personfromperformanceon variousprojectiveandobjective tests,theautobiography andtotal personalhistory, and reactions tothoroughinterviews  Theypooledtheirindividualimpressionsata "diagnosticcouncil" --acase conference  Theyinferredbasicneeds,motives, conflicts,anddynamics;attitudesandvalues;andmain characterstrengthsandliabilities  Global psychodynamicassessment:personality -->testbehaviour(rorschach, TAT,interview) -->clinician'sinferencesregardingpersonality -->prediction of person'sfuturebehaviour  Higher-ordermotives  The motivesthatthe Murraygroupidentifiedare called higher-ordermotives-- theydon'tinvolvespecificphysiological changes  Instead,theyare psychologicaldesiresforparticulargoalsoroutcomesthatthe person values  Murray believesthat motivesdonotoperateregardless ofthe contextorsituationanditspressures,whichhe called environmentalpresses  Hedevelopedobservationaltechniquestoassesthese pressesandtake themintoaccount  INFOCUS8.2-SelectingU.S.Spies:The OSSAssessmentProject  Situationaltest -participantswererequiredto performstressful,lifelike tasksunderextremelydifficultconditions  Cliniciansmadedeepinferences,basedonthebehaviourobservedduringthe task,abouteachperson'sunderlyingpersonality  Competencemotivation  Competence motivation - adesirefor masteryofa taskforitsownsake andmayapplytosuchdiversetasksasrunning,pianoplaying,juggling, chess, or the mastery ofanewsurgicalprocedure  Notderivedfrombiologicaldrives --doitforthesake ofthe activity,notforany externalaward  Needforachievement  Needforachievement- competitionwitha standardofexcellence  Examinedfantasiesfromstoriestoldon the TATbysystematicallyscoringthe occurrenceofachievementimageryin thestories  Levelofachievementmotivation inunemployedblue-collarworkerswasrelatedtohow theydealtwiththeirunemploymentsituation andtriedtofind workagain  Thosehigherin measuredachievementmotivationusedmore strategiesintheirjobsearchandlookedforajobsoonerafterbeinglaid offthan didthoselowerin this motive  Achievementmotivationisinfluencedbysocializationexperiencesduringchildhood --parentalexpectations,goalsto meet,support  Needforpower  Needforpower -definedintermsoftheimpactonewantstohave on people  Measuredby scoringthepowerthemesthatappearinthestoriespeople telltotheTAT  People highon powermotivation expressmore concern withimpacton others, status,andreputationin theirstories  Connectionsbetweenpowerimagery in political communicationsandthewarfarethatfollows atvariouspointsin history  Powerimagesincreasebefore militaryaction andthreaterupts  Powerimagesdecreaseprecedinga decreaseinactualthreatlevelsandwarfare  Needforintimacy  Needforintimacy - peopleare motivatedtowarmlyandcloselyconnect,share, andcommunicatewith otherpeople intheireverydaylife  People highinneedforintimacymake moreeyecontact,andlaughandsmile more  Prefercloseinteractionswitha few friendswithwhomthey can communicateintimately -they'renotthetypicalextravertlife-of-the-pary  Caring,loving,sincere  Nota dominatingpersonality  Implicitandexplicitmotives  Twolevelsofmotivation:explicitandimplicit  Explicit motives -consciously recognized goals  Assessedwithself-reports  Implicitmotives- lessconscious, moreemotional,andaffect-relateddesiresanddrives  Assessedwithindirect/projective methods --TAT  Implicitmethods- provide aglimpse intohuman motivesthatbypassestheproblemsfoundonexplicitself-reportmeasuresthatare subjectto distortionswhenpeopletrytomake theirresponsesmoresocially desirableandappropriate  Notcloselyrelated; responseson onedo notpredictresponsesontheother  Implicitmotivesrelatedtoaffective,emotionalmostmemorable experiences(MMEs)  Explicit motiveswere connectedwithmoreaffect-freedailyroutinesandexperiences  Strongimplicitmotive forachievement - recalled moreintenseemotionalaspectsofachievementexperiences  Strongimplicitmotive forintimacy - recalledintenseemotionalmemoriesaboutcloseinterpersonalencounters  Strongexplicitachievement - recalled more routineandaffect-freeexperiences TREATMENTANDCHANGE  Psychoanalysis-basedon the premisethatneurotic conflictandanxietyaretheresultofrepressed(unconscious)impulses --aimstoremove the repression andresolvethe conflictbyhelpingpatientsachieveinsightintotheirunconsciousimpulses  Thebeginnings:Freeassociationanddreaminterpretation  Resistance-anydifficultiesorblocksin freeassociationcausedbyunconscious defensesblockingaccesstomaterialcentraltothe patient'sproblems,andthe person isencouragedtocontinuewiththefreeassociation  Ego'sdefensesarerelaxedduring sleep  Today'sviewofFreud'stheoryoftrauma  Traumaticexperiences -experiencesthatabruptlyandseverely disruptthe person'snormaldailyroutine,threateninghimorherwithphysicalinjury ordeath  Whentraumasendangerthevictim'scorebeliefs aboutoneselfandtheworld, dissociative reactionsmay occurtokeepthethreatoutside fullawareness,splitoff fromthe restofone'sexperience  Cognitive restructuring -focuseson reinterpretingthe meaningofthe eventin awaythatallows theperson todealwithit  IncontemporaryapplicationsofFreud'sideasabouttraumasanddissociation,thefocusison helpingthe persontoacknowledgethetraumaitselfandreinterpret themwithlessself-blame  Thetransferencerelationshipandworkingthrough  Therapist= acceptingandnoncritical,re
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