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Chapter 12

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Western University
Psychology 2550A/B
James M Olson

CHAPTER 12 Part V The PhenomenologicalHumanistic LevelWork at this level began as a protest movement by psychologist who cared about personality particularly by clinical psychologists working with disturbed and distressed people after WWII o This was against psychoanalytic work of Freud and his followers that dominated clinical psychology and psychiatry at the timeCritique Freudian approach was too focused on pathology and disordered aspects of personality and too inattentive to its potential strengthsIncreasing doubts about therapeutic efficacy and practical usefulness of psychoanalysis and scientific validity o Also against behaviourism and rat psychology which dominated most academic psychology departments in USGeorge Kellywhat is most important about personality is what has been left outhow the person views or contrues the world in different ways o These contrues guide the way people think feel do and become o People are free to change the way they construe and appraise themselves and the worldCarl Rogersdeveloped a theory that focused on the individuals potential for personal growth and genuineness and on the nature of the self Some questions at the phenomenologicalhumanistic level you might ask about yourselfWhat am I really feeling How do I see myself How do I see my parentsWhat do I feel about myself when I dont meet my parents expectationsHow is my real self different from the self I would ideally like to beWhat is my ideal selfAm I happy Fulfilled Where am I going What is my identity Who do I want to become Sources of PhenomenologicalHumanistic PerspectivesExamine the nature of subjective experience and see how people perceive their world Defining Humanistic Psychology Phenomenology ExistentialismRaw materials of theories that deal with the persons subjective internal experiences personal concepts and the self o Many are influenced by phenomenology and existentialismHumanistic psychology movement within personality psychology that grew beginning in the 1950s in the USmostly as a protest movement to the then dominant forces within the fieldJournal of humanistic psychology by Maslow and Rogers o Promoted holistic psychology that would study the individual as a whole person focusing on subjective experience and the self rather than on subprocesses like learning or perceivingPhenomenology study of consciousness and the appearances of things and events as the individual perceives and experiences themExistentialism human beings are completely free and responsible for their own behaviours personality psychology o Began with philosopher Kierkegaard and was expanded by Sartre MerleauPonty Heidegger and others o This responsibility is at the root of the deep dread and anxiety that characterizes human beings o Humanistic psychology emphasizes on the idea that it gives the individual a greater degree of freedom and potential for selfchange than had been recognized in earlier personality theoriesTheories at this level are distinctive both in concepts they reject and in ones the emphasize o Rejectmost of the dynamic and motivational concepts of the psychoanalytic level and most assumptions of the trait and behavioral levelsPersons are viewed as experiencing begins in the here and now rather than victims of the unconscious psychodynamic conflictsApproaches in this chapter stress peoples positive strivings and their tendencies toward growth and selfactualizationIN FOCUS 121 Pioneers At Different Levels Of Analysis At Work And War In The Same PlaceAllport Murray and Skinner were competing with each other are various levels
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