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Chapter 17

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Psychology 2550A/B
James M Olson

CHAPTER 17 OVERVIEW OF CONTRIBUTIONS TO SELFREGULATION FROM EACH LEVEL Level of analysis Key contributions Psychodynamic Self regulation problems reflect internal conflicts between basic biological impulses id versus inhibiting influences ego super ego often outside motivational awareness recognized importance of the ability to delay gratification and analyzed some of its mechanisms examined insight and rational egocognitive control to overcome defensive irrational selfdefeating automatic processing Trait dispositional Found and measured broad individual differences in conscientiousness and selfregulation as well as distinctive ifthen Behavioural signatures in selfregulation examined constructs and dimensions of ego control and ego resilience identified problems of undercontrol and overcontrol and their implications for personality development over the life course Biological Identifying brain centers pathways and interacting hot and cool systems in effortful control and delay of gratification clarifying role of attention deployment in effective selfregulation and focused problem solving found links to trait and temperament measures BehaviouralShowed importance and power of situations and stimulus control Found processes and determinants of behaviour outside awareness analyzed how conditioning emotional conditioning and response consequences shape behaviour and make self control and self regulation difficult Phenomenological Perception is subjective persons cognitive appraisals and construal of situations influence their impact on behaviour showed possibilities for self humanistic determination higher order processes provide routes to enhance self direction and overcome stimulus control Constructive alternative ways of construing and thinking can help people from becoming victims of their social and biological history Social cognitive Helped bridge the gap between construal and action showed how the construal of the situation interacts with other mental representations to influence goal directed effortful behaviour analyzed the mental mechanisms and strategies that enable delay of gratification and goal directed self control demonstrated the consequences of this ability visible in early life for major long term life outcomes found new evidence that much self regulation operates automatically outside awareness SELFREGULATORY PROCESSES IN GOAL PURSUIT Personal goals and projectsThe goals an individual pursues are organized and coherent and of central importance in the functioning of the personality systemLife tasksDefined as projects to which individuals commit themselves during particular periods in the livesHelp give meaning to the individuals life and provide organization and direction for many more specific activities and goal pursuits Typically experienced as personally urgent they are also often illdefined and loosely formulated with limited selfawarenessEach student focuses on somewhat different aspects of the same common themesGoal hierarchiesGoals are organized hierarchically in the personality systemSuperordinate goals more important than the subordinate goalsThe goal to be and feel safe and secure is a higherlevel goal than finding a partner I can trust or getting a job I can count on When goal attainment at a given level getting a job for ex is blocked people ma continue to strive toward the higherlevel goal safe and secure towardwhich the lowerlevel activity was directedStandards and self evaluation People evaluate their own behaviour and perceived progress and they reward themselves accordingly thereby further influencing how they progressorfail to do so
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