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Chapter 1

Psychology 2660A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Walter Dill Scott, Army General Classification Test, Western Electric

Course Code
Natalie J Allen

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IO Chapter 1
Psychology the scientific study of thinking and behaviour, considered a science because it uses
the same research methods as other areas of scientific investigation
o Purpose of the American Psychological Society is to advance the discipline of psychology
primarily from a scientific perspective rather than just focusing on health care practices
Society for industrial and organizational psychology professional organization that represents
I/O psychologists in the United States
o Occupational psychology in England
o Work and organizational psychology in European countries
o Industrial psychology in South Africa
o 4% of psychologists work in IO
o IO psychology strives to enhance both the institution and the individual
o Knowledge of IO psychology remains very low to the general public
I/O psychology an area of scientific study and professional practice that addresses
psychological concepts and principles in the work world
o Concerned with behaviour in work situations
o Professional side is concerned with the application of knowledge to solve real problems
in the world of work such as reducing absenteeism, finding better employees etc.
Scientist-practitioner model education of IO psychologists is founded here, trains them in
both scientific inquiry and practical application
IO psychologists work in 4 main employment settings: universities, consulting firms, industry,
and government; the first two are the primary employers
o Universities employ more scientists
o Consulting firms employ more practitioners
Fields of IO psychology
o Selection and placement selection, placement and promotion of employees
o Training and development identify employees skills that need to be enhanced for
better job performance
o Performance management enhance contributions of workforce to facilitate attaining
overall goals of the organization
o Organizational effectiveness improving quality of workforce and relationships with
customers and suppliers, broadest field
o Quality of work life concerned with factors contributing to a healthy and productive
Licensure the process by which a professional practice is regulated by law to ensure quality
standards are met to protect the public
o Licensing law regulates both the title and practice of psychology
o Determine standards of being a psychologist and discipline members when standards
are violated
o Clinical psychologists must go through a written examination

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History of IO Psychology
Two world wars were major catalysts for changing the discipline
Early Years (1900-1916)
o Before 1900 IO psychology was a merging of two forces that gathered momentum
1. Pragmatic nature of some basic psychological research
Psychologist W.L. Bryan was a precursor of IO psych, not father of it
Published a paper about how professional telegraphers develop skills in
sending and receiving Morse code
In 1903 his presidential address to the APA touched on having
psychologists study concrete activities and functions as they appear in
everyday life
2. The desire of industrial engineers to improve efficiency
Developed time and motion studies to prescribe the most efficient body
motions per unit of time to perform a particular work task; interested in
productivity of industrial employees
In the late 19th century American society was undergoing rapid changes and
developments because of industrialization, immigration, a high birthrate,
education and urban growth
People wanted to make the next generation a safer and better place to live and
work, looked to science for practical solutions to problems
By 1910 industrial psychology was a legitimate practice
o Walter Dill Scott
Applied psychology to advertising
Increased public awareness and the credibility of industrial psychology
o Frederick W. Taylor
Wrote the Principles of scientific management
Science over rule of thumb
Scientific selection and training
Cooperation over individualism
Equal division of work best suites to management and employees
Showed that employees who handled heavy iron ingots were more productive
when they had breaks; increased productivity, reduced fatigue, increased their
wages, and increased efficiency reducing costs for the company
o Lillian Miller Gilbreth
Pioneered industrial management techniques that are still used
Concerned with human aspects of worker efficiency
Recognized the effects of stress and fatigue on workers
Cheaper by the dozen was written about her
o Hugo Munsterberg
Applied traditional psychological methods to practical industrial problems
Wrote psychology and industrial efficiency
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