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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

6 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2660A/B
Natalie J Allen

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Chapter 2 Research Methods in IO PsychologyResearcha formal process by which knowledge is produced and understoodGeneralizabilitythe extent to which conclusions drawn from one research study spread or apply to a larger population3 goals of science description prediction explanation The Empirical Research ProcessSteps in conducting empirical research 1 Statement of the problems 2 Design of research study 3 Measurement of variables 4 Analysis of data 5 Conclusions from research And back to 1 This is an important feedback factor results from step five influence the first step in future studiesStatement of the ProblemTheorya statement that proposes to explain relationships among phenomena of interestInductive methoda research process in which conclusions are drawn about a general class of objects or people based on knowledge of a specific member of the class under investigationAfter conducting research on a topic researchers may propose a theory about why the behavior occursDeductive methoda research process in which conclusions are drawn about a specific member of a class of objects or people based on knowledge of the general class under investigationHere the researcher forms a theory first and then tests the theory by collecting dataAccurate theory data will support it inaccurate theory data will not support itPsychology is difficult to investigatepeople are far too variable Lewina theory is useful for conducting research it synthesizes info organizes it into logical components and directs the researchers efforts in future studiesSkinnertoo much effort is spent on proving theories productive research doesnt require a theoryextreme empiricism Chanresearchers become too committed to proving their theories and become blinded to info that doesnt conform to the theory they want to believeA theory is an important way to specify research questions but it is only one of many ways to formulate a research problemDesign of the Research StudyResearch designa plan for conducting scientific research for the purpose of learning about a phenomenon of interestResearch strategies may be compared on these two important dimensions 1 The naturalness of the research setting 2 The investigators degree of control over the studyInternal validitythe degree to which the relationships evidenced among variables in a particular research study are accurate or true o The extent to which the results are attributed to the variables investigated rather than to other possible explanationsExternal validitythe degree to which the relationships evidenced among variables in a particular research study are generalizable or accurate in other contexts o The extent to which findings from a study are relevant to individuals and settings beyond those specifically examined o Synonymous with generalizability If a study lacks internal validity it can have no external validity Naturalness of the Research SettingStudying the problem in the environment in which it naturally occurs is desirable because we dont want the research strategy to distort the phenomenon under studyHawthorne study was conducted in a natural environment
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