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Chapter 3

Psychology 2660A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Job Analysis, Performance Appraisal, Job Performance

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Natalie J Allen

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Job analysis
A method for describing jobs and or the personal attributes necessary to perform them
3 element comprise a formal job analysis:
1. The procedure must be systematic
2. A job is broken into smaller units
We describe components of jobs rather than the overall job
3. Analysis results in some written product
No one way to do a job analysis
1. Job Oriented Approach
Provides information about the nature of and the tasks done on the job
Some methods describe the tasks themselves
o Eg. police officer- completes report after arresting a suspect - task
Other methods - information about characteristics of tasks
o Eg. police- Uses pencils and pens - characteristic
o Describes common features that cut across tasks
Purposes of the job analysis determines which type of approach is more useful
Task description- picture of what people do on the job
Characteristic of a task- used to compare the nature of tasks across different kinds of jobs
Hierarchy of a task (Brannick):
A. Position: collection of duties that can be performed by a single individual
B. Duty: major component of a job (eg. enforce the law- police) (accomplished by performing assoc.
C. Task: complete piece of work the accomplishes some particular objective (eg. arrest those
violating law) (can be divided up into activities)
D. Activity: the individual parts that make up the task (eg. driving to suspects house to arrest them)
(a number of actions or elements involved to accomplish this activity)
E. Element: eg. turn the ignition key to start the automobile engine
2. Person Oriented Approach: describes the characteristics or KSAOs (knowledge, skills, abilities and
other personal characteristics) a person must have for a job
Knowledge: what a person needs to know to do a particular job
o Eg. carpenter - knowledge of local building codes
Skill: what a person is able to do on the job
o Eg. reading blueprints and using power tools
Ability: person's aptitude or capability to do job tasks or learn to do job tasks
o Eg. hand eye coordination
Other: anything relevant to the job not covered in other 3 characteristics
o Eg. willingness to do manual tasks and to work outdoors
#1.List the uses of job analysis information
Ash and Levine- 11 common uses of job analysis
Purposes/ Uses of job analysis information
1. Career development of employees
Not everyone can climb the career ladder because of limited opportunities for promotion and
inabiity to achieve the necessary KSAOs
Competency systems: used to reward employees for acquiring the knowledge and skills to
improve performance and be promoted
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Provides a picture of the KSAO requirements for jobs at each level and identifying key
2. Legal issues
Ensuring fairness in employee actions by incorporating KSAO
3. Performance appraisal
Specific behaviours used in behaviour focused performance appraisal methods are collected with
critical incidents from a job analysis
Critical incidents: instances of behaviour that represent different levels of job performance used
to assess performance
Poor incident- person did something ineffective; good incident- person did something that worked
4. Selection
5. Training
KSAO- suggest the areas training should be directed
6. Setting salaries
7. Vocational counselling
Help individuals match their KSAOs to the KSAO requirements of jobs
8. Research
9. Efficiency and safety
10. Job classification
11. Job description
12. Job design
13. Planning
#2: Describe the sources and ways of collecting job analysis information
All methods use people who are trained in quantifying job characteristics and the KSAO necessary
Either survey the employees doing the job in question or experience the job firsthand or observing
4 sources of job analysis information
Job analysts
Job incumbents
Trained observers
Information provided through:
Techniques to
collect job analysis
Performing the job
Provides context in which the job is
Provides extensive detail about the
Fails to show differences among
jobs with the same title
Is expensive and time
Can take extensive training of
Can be dangerous to analyst
Observing people
doing the job
Provides relatively objective view
Time consuming
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