Performance Appraisal: Criterion: evaluative standard of comparison of good performance Original Problem: what to measure Thorndike Ultimate (Theoretical) Criterion:encompassing all performance standards constituting success on a job. Actual (Operational) Criterion Measure to reflect ultimate criteria as BernardinBeatty (1984):>25 charac.measuring criteria effectiveness 1. Relevance:Deg. to which actual related to ultimate Deficiency actual not measure everything in theoretical Contamination measuring something other than what intended 2.Reliability: deg. of consistency in measurement 3.Sensitivity:extent distinguish btw effective ineffective performers 4.Practicality: extent to which canwill be used by decision makers 5.Fairness: extent to which employees perceive criteria to be legitimate, accurate, applied consistently Criterion Complexity Problem:Performance is multifaceted but personnel decisions often require overall evaluation Composite criterion: Combine individual criteria single score Multidimensional criterion: Scores for each criterion separate Criterion Breadth ProblemTypical job performance models focus only on task performance (in role performance, workrelated techn operation of organization, work to rule) organizational effectiveness requires contextual performance (extrarole performance, OCB, voluntary, social environment ) Borman Motowidlo Criterion Stability Problem: Dynamic criteria: variability of performance over time (on certain criteria)*hard for single set of predicators Cognitive testing :good predictor go through training well, not really for performing long term well *intelligence good Appraisal system: Objective: observabletangiblecountable units of Specific behavior,criterion defcontm,tied directly to organ. objective Subjective Ratings of performance, based on judgment. Intangibles: produce work that not tangible anxiety individual feedback 360 degree feedback:multiple sources to overcome lack of contex Errors: 1.Distributional: Severity: range meanless prevalent Leniancy:rangemean*common Central tendency:range middle Graphic rating Form: assess several dimensions of performance 2. Halo error : giving same rating across dimensions even if diff True halo: actually performs the same 3.Attribution errors (me something external , otherstheir fault) 4.Temporal errors (primacyearlier in period ; recencyearlier in week) 5.Contrast errors (rting in comparison to other) 6.Personal Biases (age, race, gender, similartome) 7.Intentional Distortion (motivation, political, economic) Subjective Measure Types: 1. Narative Evaluation: written review, flexability, not standard 2. Comparative Method: rank,pair, forced distribution,administration decisions , doesnt compare to standards, for employee developm.