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Chapter 10

Psychology 2660A/B - Chapter 10.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2660A/B
Natalie J Allen

Chapter 10 – Organizational Attitudes and Behaviour - 3 important attitudes employees hold about their work: o How satisfied they are with job, how involved they are with job, and how committed they are to work Job Satisfaction - Job satisfaction – the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his or her work - Comparison of actual outcomes with outcomes expected - Broad differences in what people expect from their jobs, and thus broad reactions to them o Related to developmental experiences and levels of aspiration - Global job satisfaction – overall feelings about job - Job facet satisfaction – overall feelings about facets of job, such as supervisor, coworkers, promotional opportunities, pay, and so on - The Job Descriptive Index and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire measure job satisfaction - Affect – how people view life, their general disposition, and attitude (personality) o Positive-negative continuum - How satisfied a person feels about job is related to affect as much as to objective job conditions o Model of job satisfaction o Correlated most with neuroticism o Big 5 personality traits – multiple correlation coefficient .41 o Feelings of job satisfaction are inheritable - Judgement of target item influenced by weight of previous item o Our judgements embedded in a relative context, and cannot be made independently of that context o Organizational efforts to improve long-term job satisfaction are futile - Moods and emotions play undeniable role in how we feel about work - Org’s may be more successful in elevating employees’ moods than in raising their overall level of job satisfaction - 5 categories of human emotions: positive, negative, existential, “nasty”, empathetic - Supervisors exert substantial influence on the moods of their employees - Employees who felt compelled to regulate their emotions experienced more stress and lower satisfaction - Relationship b/w job satisfaction and job performance is not very strong o Org attempts to increase productivity may decrease job satisfaction - Withdrawal behaviour – absence (temporary), turnover (permanent) o The more people dislike their job, the more likely they are to quit o People would rather endure a dissatisfying job than be unemployed; when alternative employment is available is readily available, workers are likely to leave unsatisfying jobs o Correlation b/w job satisfaction and absence is considerably smaller (transportation problems, family responsibilities) o If you like your job, you are more likely to make extra effort needed to get to work than if you are dissatisfied o How people feel about their jobs is also related to how they feel about their life in general Job Involvement - Job involvement – the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her work and the importance of work to one’s self-image - Job involvement more strongly related to how people view their work and their approach to it and less related to how well they perform their jobs Work Commitment - Work commitment – the extent to which an employee feels a sense of allegiance to his/her work - Affective component – employee’s emotional attachment to, and identification with, the target o Allegiance based on liking the target - Continuance component – commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the target o Allegiance because it’s unlikely the person would derive more meaning or fulfillment elsewhere - Normative component – employee’s feelings of obligation to remain with the target o Allegiance to target out of sense of loyalty - Organizational changes resulting in job loss can undermine employee commitment, yet commitment is essential for any re-configured organization to succeed - Individuals will not exhibit commitment to organizations in exchange for long-term employment - Committed employees more likely to remain in org - The construct of commitment doesn’t necessarily explain why employees remain with their employer - Occupational commitment - emotional connection that person feels with the occupation - Organizational commitment – sense of loyalty to one’s particular employer - Job involvement – loyalty to one’s job - Work ethic  occupational continuance  continuance organization commitment  affective organizational commitment  job involvement - Job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment are substantially correlated with each other but only modestly correlated with performance and turnover o Organizational attitudes substantially intercorrelated o Linkage b/w org attitudes and behaviour moderated by factors beyond control of individual Organizational Justice - Organizational justice – the theoretical concept pertaining to the fair treatment of people in organizations. The three types are distributive, procedural, and interactional - Both the outcome of the selection decision and the process can be questioned in terms of fairness - Associated with performance, turnover, absenteeism, trust, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment 1) Distributive Justice - The fairness with which the outcomes or results are distributed among members of an organization - Equity o People should receive rewards that are consistent with the contributions they make or bring to a situation - Equality o All individuals should have an equal chance of receiving the outcome or reward, regardless of differentiating characteristics such as ability - Need o Rewards should be distributed on the basis of individual need - Relationship b/w cultural orientations and reward allocation preferences o Individualistic cultures prefer equity rule because of emphasis on competition and self-gain o Collectivist cultures prefer equality rule because of emphasis on solidarity, harmony, and cohesion 2) Procedural Justice - The fairness by which means are used to achieve results in an organization - Deals with the perceived fairness of the policies and procedures used to make decisions - Procedures perceived to be more fair when affected individuals have an opportunity to either influence the decision process or offer input - Decisions should be made consistently, without personal biases, with as much accurate info as possible, and with an outcomes that could be modified - Consistent, bias free, accurate, correctable in case of an error, representative of all concerned, and based on prevailing ethical standards 3) Interactional Justice - The fairness with which people are treated within an organization and the timeliness, completeness, and accuracy of the information received in an organization - Interpersonal justice – showing concern for individuals and respecting them as people who have dignity - Informational justice – knowledge and procedures that demonstrate regard for people’s concerns o Explanations must be genuine in intent and based on sound reasoning o Open sharing of information - Procedural justice most closely related to organizational attitudes and behaviour Organizational Citizenship Behaviour - Organizational citizenship behaviour – the contributions that employees make to the overall welfare of the organization that go beyond the required duties of their job 1. Altruism – willfully helping specific people with an organizationally relevant task or problem 2. Conscientiousness – being punctual, having attendance better than the group norm, and judiciously following company rules, regulations, and procedures 3. Courtesy – being mindful and respectful of other people’s rights 4. Sportsmanship – avoiding complaints, pretty grievances, gossiping, and falsely magnifying problems 5. Civic virtue – responsible participation in the political life of the organization o Most admirable; sacrifice individual productivity efficiency - Employees perceived as exhibiting citizenship behaviours received higher performance evaluations and pay raises, a
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