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Chapter 11

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Psychology 2720A/B
Clive Seligman

CHAPTER 11 AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCEDenition and Varieties of AggressionAggression behaviour that is intended to injure someone physically or psychologicallyViolence aggression that is intended to cause extreme injuryHostile and Instrumental AggressionHostile Aggression harmdoing that arises out of negative emotions such as anger frustration or hatredHostile aggression is often impulsive rather than planned and the primary goal is to hurt the targetInstrumental Aggression harmdoing that is motivated by goals other than hurting the target such as obtaining something of value Instrumental aggression is often premeditated or planned rather than impulsivePeople motives for aggression are often multifacetedAggressive behaviour can be caused by several factors simultaneouslyTherefore the distinction between hostile and instrumental aggression is only occasionally useful for precisely classifying a particular aggressive act Relational AggressionRelational Aggression behaviour that is intended to damage another persons peer relationshipsIt may leave no physical damage but it can inict very signicant psychological damage Boys were judged as engaging in more overt physical aggression than girlsGirls were judged as engaging in more relational aggression than boysCrick found relational aggression among university students was associated with peer rejection an antisocial personalityIt appears that aggressive behaviour can sometimes be associated with popularity Theories of AggressionGeneral Aggression Model GAMGeneral Aggression Model GAM a broad theory that conceptualizes aggression as the result of a cain of psychological processes including situational events aggressive thoughts and feelings and interpretations of the situationSome people are more likely than others to respond to situational events with aggressive thoughts and feelings this idea is reected in the category of individual difference in the model How do people decide whether aggression is appropriate The GAM uses the term appraisal processes to represent this decisionFive rich theoretical traditions in the study of aggressionBiological inuences on aggressionFrustration and aggressionExcitation transferSocial learning theoryCognitive neoassociation model Biological Inuences on AggressionHuman aggression is undoubtedly inuenced by biological processesHormonal Activity and Aggression
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