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Psychology 2720A/B CHP 13: Liking, Loving, and Close Relationships

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Psychology 2720A/B
Clive Seligman

CHP 13: Liking, Loving, and Close Relationships - Dyadic relationships: relationships that involve two people ATTRACTION - Interpersonal attraction: the study of attraction or liking between two or more people Propinquity - Propinquity: nearness or proximity in physical space, which creates the opportunity to meet other people The Likelihood of Meeting. - Spatial ecology: physical layout of the buildings and distances separating different buildings, rooms, and other spaces - Functional distance: compared to physical distance, the closeness between two laces in terms of the opportunities for interaction o E.g. in the apartments 1 and 5 were located by the stairs, more likely to see their neighbours upstairs Meeting Does Not Guarantee Liking. - People could do things that bother you - Found that people report both people they like and dislike to be the ones that are around them Similarity Compatible Attitude. - Attitude-similarity Effect: the idea that people find others more attractive and likeable the more similar they are in their attitudes, beliefs, and preferences - Liking leads to perceived similarity - Suggestion that it may be more the case we are repulsed by those who are dissimilar – we tend to assume people are similar to us in the absence of info - Repulsion Hypothesis: the idea that people find others less attractive and less likable if they differ substantially in their attitudes, beliefs and preferences Self-Disclosure. - Self-Disclosure: The process of people revealing increasingly personal and intimate details about themselves o People who do this more are liked more o If you are willing to disclose you are a high discloser o If you can make other people disclose you are an opener  Low disclosures are more comfortable disclosing to those who have good opener abilities Facial Beauty - Babies show a preference to attractive faces, show more positive reactions to attractive strangers and prefer attractive dolls - Beauty is not in the eye of the beholder, people do judge books by their cover, and beauty is sometimes more than skin deep Shared Perceptions of Beauty. - People of all ages and cultural backgrounds seem to share a common view of what is an attractive face The Components of Facial Features. - Facialmetrics involves the measurement of a large number of facial features o Women rate males as more attractive when they have  Prominent cheekbones, large chin, and a wide smile  Height of eyes does not deviate too far from average o Men rate females as more attractive when they have  Large eyes, small nose & chin, prominent cheekbones, high eyebrows, large pupils and a large smile o People also use facial features to infer personality traits  Smaller eyes lead to attributions of masculinity, less nurturance, and less empathy Average Faces Are Attractive Faces. - Evolutionary pressure and natural selection generally favour average rather than extreme population features - Starting early in infancy, people routinely form prototypes or cognitive schemas that capture the central or average features of the many instances/examples of a category o Putting these together: Faces will be judged as more attractive the closer they are to the average of the population of faces - Test this; found 16 and 32 composite faces were more attractive - Average faces are not uncommon, they just represent what a face “should” look like Bodily Features Body Types. - waist-to-hip ratio – ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference o Most women are narrower at the waist, most men are about the same at the waist and hips – there is variation o This is what is preferred by the opposite gender - Study found when a female observer was evaluating a group a men, those with hip ratios closer to 1.0 were seen as more dominant/leaderlike o Could be ratios are related to testosterone levels – aggression Weight. - Attitudes about weight are communicated through a cultures customs and media - If thin = beauty, or plump = beauty – this is what will be adopted by community Height. - Males should be taller but not too tall - 1.8m(5’9”) or medium height was judged the best, 1.7(5’6”) and 1.9(6’2”) were judged as less attractive Body Odour. - Pleasant body odour is judged as more attractive - We are hard on people who know they smell bad and can do something about it Evolutionary Significance of Good Looks - Waist to hip ratios are signs of fertility and good health - Cultures that have less resources see plump as healthy, those who have plenty see thinness as healthy - Nice skin and symmetrical faces may communicate info about a persons health - Study found women with attractive faces had less health problems and men with attractive faces came from wealthier backgrounds Social Benefits of Good Looks What is Beautiful is Good. - What is beautiful is good: the inference that attractive people possess other desirable traits and abilities in addition to their good looks - Based on photographs, attractive babies were viewed as smarter, easier
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