Psychology 2720A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Implicit-Association Test, Aversive Racism, Briey

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Published on 18 Nov 2011
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2720A/B
Psych 2720A
Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very
strongly held
discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group
membership
genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment
or murder
Prejudice and Discrimination Today
overt discrimination is less common today than 20 or 30 years ago
discrimination has been made illegal, and equal access has become mandatory policy
for employers in the public and private sectors
Dovidio of the University of Massachusetts and Gaertner of the University of Delaware
have argued that “old-fashioned”, blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by
more subtle and ambiguous discrimination
aversive racism: a “modern” kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider
themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced
aversive, but who nevertheless harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings
toward members of minority groups
Implicit Association Test (IAT) has been used to assess respondentsʼ automatic,
implicit attitudes toward minority groups has been used as a physiological measure of
prejudice
Stereotypes: Cognitive Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination
prejudice is a byproduct of normal human thinking processes
key element in the cognitive view of prejudice is stereotypes
stereotypes are individualsʼ beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes
stereotypes qualify as one kind of a schema - schemas that represent human
groups
these assumptions can be made quickly and effortlessly and will provide a solid
basis for behavioural decisions; allow us to make rapid inferences about target
persons
Two Costs of Stereotypes: Oversimplification and Negativity
we may assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups, nationalities, genders,
and occupations
outgroup homogeneity effect: tendency for perceivers to overestimate the similarity
within groups they do not belong
stereotypes are often unfavourable in tone - stereotypes may refer to groups that are
believed to be competing with the perceiverʼs group for desired resources (not
necessarily the case for prejudice)
evidence shows that being in a bad mood leads perceivers to interpret their
stereotypes of some minority groups more negatively
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another reason why stereotypes are often negative is because people may be
unfamiliar with members of the targeted group and feel anxious or uncomfortable
when interacting with them; people may label their anxiety as dislike for the group
anxiety about interacting with members of the group will also lead people to
avoid such interactions altogether
Stereotypes Distort Information Processing
Unfortunately, humans are not open and unbiased processors of information
stereotypes (like other schemas) guide attention and interpretation in such a way as to
increase the probability that perceiversʼ expectancies will be confirmed.
Stereotypes Guide Attention
stereotypes affect what the perceivers notice about members of the stereotyped
group
perceivers are sensitive to information that confirms the stereotype
implications in the legal system - a man who is of belonging to a minority group is
more likely to be convicted of a crime than a White man
Stereotypes Guide Interpretation
actions that are ambiguous will be interpreted as consistent with expectations
consequently, behaviours that do not necessarily support the stereotype will
strengthen it.
ie. same behaviours performed by Black and White individuals were more
perceived as aggressive and threatening when performed by a Black person
damaging stereotype of Black is being aggressive or hostile
this finding indicates that the differential interpretations reflected knowledge of a
cultural stereotype rather than personal prejudice
study conducted where they created a video game to shoot people who were
holding guns - people in the video game were either armed/unarmed or Black/
White
researchers found that participants were faster to judge correctly that Black
targets were armed than to judge correctly that White targets were armed
this was still the finding even though they had Black and White participants -
some researchers concluded that Black people are aware of the cultural
stereotype that white skin is more valued than black skin
this result showed when they conducted a study of Black and White infants
who were placed into a room full of Black and White dolls to observe and
see which kind of doll they would choose (Black babies chose the White
dolls)
The Potential Vicious Cycle of Stereotypes
the way you behave towards someone because of an existing stereotype you believe
in can influence the way that person reacts to you
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Self-fulfilling prophecy: a process in which a perceiverʼs expectancy about a
target person influences the perceiverʼs behaviour toward the target person in such
a way as to elicit the expected actions from the target person
researchers studied the way people conducted job interviews.
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found that people were more favourable (ie. gave more eye contact, more
welcoming gestures and questions) to White people which made then in turn,
view more favourable in the end.
stereotypes of White and Black people affected the way employers conducted
their interviews which in turn, affected how the applicants responded, giving
themselves a more favourable or unfavourable impression
Do Stereotypes Influence Our Perceptions If We Disagree with Them?
researchers agree that even though we donʼt endorse a particular view to a
stereotype, simply knowing about it can influence our perceptions
to study this, Devine from University of Wisconsin used a subliminal priming procedure
subliminal priming procedure: a method of activating a schema or stereotype by
flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant
activated the stereotype of Black people by showing neutral words and pictures
then, they were asked to read a passage about a man (ethnicity was unspecified)
who committed such ambiguous actions with respect to hostility.
those participants who were primed of the Black stereotype before reading the
passage rated the manʼs actions as more aggressive and more hostile
exposure to words related to the stereotype of Black Americans increased the
perceived hostility of ambiguous beahviour for both prejudiced and unprejudiced
participants
Implicit Intergroup Bias
Implicit intergroup bias: distorted judgements about members of a group based
on a stereotype, which can occur without the personʼs awareness
notion that stereotypes can automatically influence our judgements
implicit intergroup bias is similar to negative implicit attitudes toward a group, which
are spontaneous negative feelings toward members of a group, of which the
perceiver may be unaware of.
there is evidence that implicit intergroup bias can be reduced by deliberate
attempts to be open-minded
Meta-Stereotypes
meta-stereotype: a personʼs beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members
hold concerning his or her own group
meta-stereotypes vary according to which particular outgroup is considered
ie. A white Canadian may believe Asians hold a different stereotype about White
people compared to Black people
How White Canadians were viewed by Aboriginals: Aboriginal Canadians consider
White Canadians to be unfair, materialistic, egocentric, prejudiced, selfish, closed-
minded, and arrogant
Note: these meta-stereotypes may or may not conform to how Aboriginal
Canadians actually view White Canadians; they refer to White Canadiansʼ beliefs
about how they are viewed by Aboriginal Canadians
meta-stereotypes influence peopleʼs expectations about their interactions with
members of the outgroup
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Document Summary

White canadians to be unfair, materialistic, egocentric, prejudiced, sel sh, closed- minded, and arrogant: note: these meta-stereotypes may or may not conform to how aboriginal. Canadians actually view white canadians; they refer to white canadians beliefs about how they are viewed by aboriginal canadians: meta-stereotypes in uence people s expectations about their interactions with members of the outgroup. Emotional sources of prejudice and discrimination: prejudice results from several emotional or motivational processes (ie. frustration, anger, and hostility, prejudice may also sometimes satisfy basic motives such as the need to evaluate the self positively. A unifying model: integrated threat theory: a new theory of prejudice introduced by walter and cookie stephan (2000) of new. Sexism: prejudice and discrimination against women: sexism: prejudice and discrimination directed against women because of their gender, unequal treatment of women leads to signi cant detrimental effects on their lives. Genocide: most infamous case of genocide is the holocaust, committed by the nazis during the.

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