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Chapter 2

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Western University
Psychology 2720A/B
Clive Seligman

Psychology 2720BChapter 2Theoryan explanation of why an event or outcome occurs it identifies the underlying courses of an event or phenomenony Ex People who believe that they can be successful will be inspired by a superstar Hypothesisa specific prediction about what should occur if a theory is valid it provides the means by which a theory can be testedy Ex Increasing individuals belief that they can be successful will increase how much they are inspired by a superstarOperational Definitiona specific observable response that is used to measure a concepty Ex People who have many future opportunities to succeed will rate themselves more favourably on various traits after being exposed to information about a superstar Social desirable respondinga form of responding that involves giving answer that portray the respondent in a positive lightUnobtrusive measuresassessments that are taken without the realization of participants thereby minimizing socially desirable responding Psychometricsa subdiscipline within psychology that is devoted to understanding and refining methods for psychological measurement Reliabilitythe extent to which a measure is free of random fluctuations both over time and across judges Validitythe extent to which a measure really assesses what is supposed to assess whether scores on the measure actually reflect the assum
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