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Chapter 5

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Psychology 2720A/B
Clive Seligman

Psychology 2720BChapter 5Dispositionsrefers to individuals consistencies across time and settings in a specific type of feeling thought and or action which make individuals different from other peopley Gender dispositionso Men score higher on visualspatial taskso Women score higher on verbal taskso Gender difference are more prominent in homicidal aggression Men commit between 7090 of murders Greater physical strength may explain this pattern Men consider violence to be acceptable response to provocations Men also have higher levels of certain hormones that have been implicated in physical aggression testosteroneo Romantic attraction Womenmens status material wealthy When lacking these qualities in themselves women rate men more highly if they are ambitious well educated Menphysical attractivenessy More likely to interpret womans friendly behaviour as indicating sexual interesto Response to threats Men react with fight or flight not women Women show a tendandbefriend responseaffiliating with other when threatened Both experience arousal when threatened but hormones released and consequences differ Mentestosterone womenestrogen and oxytocin Selfesteempeoples judgments of their own worthiness people with high selfesteem think positively of themselves and vice versay Sources of selfesteem o Personal experiencessuccessfulunsuccessfulo Parentso Glass selfpeople may internalize the views of themselveso Academic achievementso Social comparisonwhen outperformed othersincrease selfesteemy Friendship and social acceptanceincrease self confidence and high self esteem y Loneliness and social rejectionproduce self doubts and low selfesteemy People with low self esteem are more likely to believe that other peoples liking of them depends on their performancey People with high in narcissism correlate only moderately to high selfesteemy Self esteem is unrelated to aggressiony Secure High selfesteem is generally a good thing Correlates of High self esteem relative to low self esteemy Clear and certain view of the selfy Expected to succeedy Approach situation hoping to demonstrate skilly High selfenhancement and self serving judgments o Attribute success internallyo Attribute failure externallyo Recall information about personal successes o Exaggerate personal control over situations y Settable dating relationshipy Happy marriages
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