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Stanovich Ch 11.docx

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Psychology 2800E

Stanovich Ch 11:  illusory correlations: when people believe that two types of events should commonly occur together, they tend to think that they are seeing co- occurrences with great-frequency, even when two 2 critical events are occurring randomly and thus do not co-occur more frequently than any other combination of events. In short, people tend to see their expected correlation even in random events.  Illusion of control: the tendency to believe that personal skill can affect outcomes determined by chance. People's mistakes belief that their behaviour determines random events.  Just-world hypothesis: the fact that people tend to believe that they live in a just world; people tend to derogate the victims of chance misfortune. The tendency to seek explanations for chance events contributes to this phenomenon.  Before accepting a complicated explanation of an event, consider what part chance may have played in its occurrence.  We are egocentric when evaluating coincidences: people find coincidences that happen to themselves more surprising than equally unlikely coincidences that happened to other people  People think coincidences have meaning, they don’t. People think they're super rare, when probability guarantees they will happen.  We must accept error to reduce error (if the subject always guesses the red light will come on, they are giving up the chance to be correct on the blue trials.. this is hard for people, even though the red light flashes 70% of the
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