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Chapter 8&9

Chapter 8&9 Textbook Notes.docx W&M

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Western University
Psychology 2800E

Chapter 8: W&M  ▯ Nonexperimental Research   (Observational, Archival, and Case­Study Research)  Experiments permit the greatest control – but many questions cannot be studied experimentally - difference b.w experimental research and nonexperimental research = degree of control that the researcher has over the subjects - manipulation; in an experiment, conditions or variables assigned or presented to a participant - assignment; in an experiment, pairing a subject with a condition or variable, according to the experimenter’s plan - observation; the record of a beh  Nonexperimental research; data collection procedure often must forfeit some degree of control in return for obtaining the data - qualitative research; asks questions regarding how people make meaning out of the world (understand themselves and the meaning of their lives) – less interested in the cause and effect of beh - correlational research; measures two or more variables to determine the degree of relationship between them - misleading bc all research is correlational to the extent that it seeks functional relationships b.w variables  Observational research; study method in which the researcher observes and records ongoing beh but doesn’t attempt to change it  Archival research; study method that examines existing records to obtain data and test hypotheses  Case Study; exploratory study of an existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis – researcher investigates a particular situation that has come to their attention  Survey; assessing the public opinion or individual characteristics by the use of questionnaire and sampling methods The Hermeneutic Approach   Not why did the beh happen? Bu rather, what did the beh mean?  Hermeneutics; the principles of interpretation of a text’s meaning – more at interpretation than causation Observation Research  Recording beh without attempting to influence it  Naturalistic Observation; of subjects in their natural environment carried out to disturb the subjects as little as possible - often called, unobtrusive research; commonly used in social sciences, - physical trace; measure of beh that uses physical evidence (graffiti in school restrooms, smudges in books to see which are most read) - another term is nonreactive research; emphasizing that the subjects are unaware that they are being studied – do not react to the presence of the observer - Goffman; beh as how ppl avoid bumping into each other on public sidewalks – ppl engage in rituals of looking at each other and giving signals to indicate their intention to pass on one side or the other th - Collett and Marsh; placed videotape recorder on the 7 floor of a building overlooking a busy pedestrian intersection – met in such a way that both had to move to avoid collision – diff. in men and women passing (men turned to face the other person), women (turned away – avoid brushing with their breasts) - Zimmerman and West; patterns of speech would reflect power through dominance of the conversation – males made 96% of interruptions in the cross-sex pairs - Lorenz; ethologists – courtship beh of ducks – 2o diff. specific beh – ducks share more specific beh are more closely related - Ekman and Friesen; importance of having a coding system to aid in observation – Action Units - 3 hard-and-fast rules 1. Careful recording keeping 2. Use of a variety of types of measures 3. Care for privacy of the participants  Laboratory Observation; type of observation in the laboratory rather than the field  Participant Observer Research; the observer participates in a group to record beh -Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance; predicts how ppl deal with conflicting beliefs - Problems: 1. By entering the group, the observer changes it to some extent… the act of observing the beh changes the beh to be observed 2. Ethical question of invasion of privacy  Archival Research; factual information in existing records – researcher had no part in collecting – examines/selects the data for analysis - Limitations; 1. Collected for non-scientific reasons 2. Ruling out alternative hypotheses for particular observed correlations may be difficult Case Studies   Yin; case study = an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context when the boundaries b.w phenomenon and context aren’t clearly evident – relies on multiple sources of evidence  Billingsley; visual-spatial neglect reported in a 7 yr old boy – neuropsychological disorder, patients ignore stimuli in one-half of space – some brain regions are tied to unilateral neglect and the development of visual- spatial attention  Narrative case study; a viewpoint expressed by telling and listening to stories that communicate meaning  Observational researchers use one of two techniques: a mathematical approach toward combating threats to internal validity or a more flexible, inductive process of developing and testing hypotheses - Cressey; investigated men who were in prison for embezzlement  Manifest content; the content of a text or photograph as indicated by measuring the frequency of some objective word, phrase, or action  Latent content; the content of text or photography as measured by the appearance of themes
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