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Chapter 7

Psychology 2990A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Corporate Social Responsibility, Ice Bucket Challenge, Astroturfing


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2990A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Attitude Change & Interactive Communications
Changing Attitudes Through Communication
Consumers are constantly bombarded by messages inducing them to change their attitudes. The focus of this
chapter is on aspects of communication that specifically help to determine how and if attitudes will be created
or modified.
Persuasion refers to an active attempt to change attitudes.
o Persuasion is a central goal of many marketing communications.
o Some psychological principles that function in the persuasion process are:
a) Reciprocity- ppl are more likely to give, if they receive smth first (ex. Incuding 1$ in a mail survey
65% of increased response)
b) Scarcity items are more attractive when less available
c) Authority tend to believe an authoritative source more
d) Consistency ppl do try not ot contradict themselves in terms of what they say & do about issue
f) Consensus- take into account what others fo, befor we decide our action desire to fit in
Decisions, Decisions: Tactical Communications Options
To craft persuasive messages that might change attitudes, a number of questions must be answered:
1) The source of a message helps to determine consumers’ acceptance of it as well as their desire to try the
product (Who is featured in the ad that seeks to change an attitude? Given the circumstances,who would be
best?)
2) How should the message be constructed?
3) What media should be used to transmit the message? Sometimes where you say is as important as what
you say
4) What characteristics of the target market might influence the ad’s acceptance? If users are frustrated in
daily lives, they might be more receptive to a fantasy appeal
The Elements of Communication
Marketers and advertisers have traditionally tried to understand how marketing messages can change
consumers’ attitudes by thinking in terms of the communications model - specifies that a number of elements
are necessary for communications to be achieved. The basic model can be perceived as having five parts:
1) The sourcewhere the communication originates.
2) This meaning must be put in the form of a message. There are many ways to say something.
3) The message must be transmitted via a medium (such as television or magazines).
4) The message is then decoded by one or more receivers. The receiver interpret the message in light of their
own experiences.
5) Finally, feedback must be received by the source (who uses the reactions of the receivers to modify
aspects of the message).
An Updated View: Interactive Communications
Traditional models of communications do not tell the whole story about the communication process
Consumers have many choices in today’s dynamic world of interactivity.
Permission marketing is based on the idea that a marketer will be much more successful trying to
persuade consumers who have opted into its messages (consumers who have agreed to allow
marketers to send them promotional information) remind us that we have a vice deciding which
information we choose to see & when
The traditional broadcasting, where the information is transferred and then repeated before the buyer
buys is outdated with the advent of narrowcasting- suits very small group of receivers
Traditional model doesn’t account for 2 way communication
Consumers are becoming more like partners than ever before our input helps to shape the message
And we may seek out messages.
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The remote control device is an example of this “seeking” behavior.
Consumers are seeking to control their media environment.
Consumer co creation- when the consumer interacts with the marketer to influence the product,
service or outcome that is created
o When marketer allows the consumer to customize its products build your own subway
sandwich or design Nike shoes
o Leads to greater consumer engagement
Anti stretch marks product was used as a wrinkle fighter by the consumers
unveiled a new advertising slogan: “Better than Botox?”
Jones Soda labels come from Jones enthusiasts
Danone asked consumers about packaging of the new yogurt
Real time marketing- activities that leverage up-to-date and currently occurring events
o Become successful when consumers interact w the messaging by forwarding the
communications through postings or retweets (popular on facebook, instagram, tweeter, cause
it’s quick)
o Ex. Oreo’s campaign during power outrage at the Super Bowl “ You can still dunk in the
dark”
New message Formats
Ice bucket challenge was a new way to harness social media for a good cause raised $115 million
for ALS research
o 24 hour deadline to either do the challenge or pay the money specific goal
o public nature share a selfie
o slight amount of self sacrifice
Martyrdom effect ppl tend to donate more money when they have to suffer a bit for the cause
Social media set of technologies that enable users to create content and share it with a large number of
ppl
o Use of social media is growing x3 faster than overall participation online
Transmedia storytelling strategy includes communications media that range from websites, blogs,
emails to recorder phone calls & graffiti messages in order to harness new technologies to communicate
w customers
Lvls of interactive response
The early perspectives regarded feedback primarily in terms of behavior: Did the recipient bought a
detergent after being exposed
But there are many other responses: building the awareness of the rand, inform about features, etc
customers can interact in other ways, not only transaction
o First order response direct marketing vehicles web catalogs, tv commercial, if successful
result in order revenue + feedback
o Second order response doesn’t have to be an immediate result in a purchase ; customer
feedback in response to a marketing message that is not in the form of a transaction
The role of persuasion The Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM)- consumers develop knowledge
about persuasion and use this knowledge to “cope” with or deal with persuasive attempts
o 2 ways interaction, oth consumer and the agent have their own goals
o consumer (target) has 3 types of knowledge:
topic knowledge related to the issue
agent knowledge about the source of persuasion
persuasion knowledge about the persuasive tactics and techniques being used
o Persuasion knowledge refers to consumers’ theories about persuasion – “hover in rediness” to
help them form attitudes about the influence agent or the product use it to get the best
outcome for themselves
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( There has been an influx in new ways to transmit information in both text and picture form.
1) M-commerce (mobile commerce) involves wireless devices including cell phones, PDAs, iPods. These
channels are growing and are quickly being used by marketers as alternatives channels for promotional
information.
2) Blogging is where people post messages to the Web in diary form. There are various types of blogs,
including flogs (confederate blogs created by companies to generate buzz). ) not in the text - omit
2. The Source
a. Regardless of how a message is received, common sense tells us that the same words uttered or written by
different people can have very different effects attribute the same message to different sources and measure
the degree of attitude change
1) Under most conditions, the source of a message can have a big impact on the likelihood the message will
be accepted.
2) Two very important source characteristics are credibility and attractiveness.
There should be a match b/w the needs of the recipient and the potential rewards offered by the source
more motivated to process the message
Ppl who are sensitive to social acceptance & the opinions of others are more persuaded by an attractive
source
o also celebrities work better with a high social risk products jewellery & furniture
Ppl who are more internally oriented credible, expert source
o Experts are effective at changing attitudes towards products w high performance risk vacuum
cleaner
“typical consumers” who are similar to the recipient are the best at advertising smth low risk, like
cookies
Source Credibility
Source credibility - source’s expertise, objectivity, or trust- worthiness.
The belief that a communicator is competent & will provide necessary info in order to evaluate 2
competing products
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)- can skyrocket company’s image, but on the other hand backfire –
when ppl question company’s motivations
A credible source can be particularly persuasive when the consume has not yet learned much about a
product or formed an opinion of it
Letting consumers know that a firm is profitable leads them to put more stock in that company
celebrities do a good job in convincing ppl
When used correctly, famous or expert spokespersons can be of great value. They can also be very
expensive.
Our brains pay more attention to famous faces & more efficiently process information
Even negatively perceived sources can affect attitude change in a positive manner through what is
known as the sleeper effect - In some instances, the differences in attitude change between positive
sources and less positive sources that seem to get erased over time.
Native advertising digital messages that blend into editorial content captures attention of ppl who
might resist ad messages look like a regular article, but they often link to a sponsor’s content
Marketing Insight:
Sock puppeting- CEO or other biased source posing as smn else & touting his org in social media
o Companies delete bad info about them in Wikipedia
o CEOs of the company created a fake blog, where they referred ppl to the group’s website
Paid influencer program- encouraging bloggers to write about companies “sponsored conversation”
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