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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Lecture - Educational Psych

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Western University
Psychology 2990A/B
Doug Hazlewood

FEBRUARY 25, 2013: Psychology in the Classroom Ch.5: Cognitive Processes in Learning Today’s Lecture: 1. Motivation in the classroom 2. Teacher Expectancy Effects 3. Cooperative Learning Part 1: Motivation in the Classroom Prologue: Defining motivation : the “why” of behavior a psychological state that “influences” (activates, sustains, and regulates) goal- directed behavior Three types of influences: 1. activates the behavior (causes it to begin) 2. sustains the behavior (keeps it going, despite any obstacles) 3. regulates the behavior (causes person to plan and strategize in order to achieve goal) Perspectives on Motivation A. The Behavioural Perspective  Behaviour is controlled by its consequences (eg. rewards or punishments)  Can control motivation by controlling the consequences of behavior -reward desired behavior (to increase motivation) -punish undesired behavior (to decrease motivation) Interlude: The problems with rewards to increase motivation The first demonstration (with kids who liked playing with “magic marker” pens) Phase 1: Assigned to 3 groups GROUP 1  expected a “good player award” for drawing a picture with pens GROUP 2  unexpectedly received the award after drawing a picture GROUP 3  didn’t receive any award Phase 2: reward is removed during free-play -how long would kids play with pens if there were no reward? RESULTS:  Group 1 spent half as much time playing with pens - expected rewards for engaging in a “fun” activity undermined intrinsic motivation to continue the activity (when the rewards were removed) Guidelines when using rewards: 1. If intrinsic motivation is low (ex. Don’t want to study), rewards can at least increase motivation until the end of the course 2. If intrinsic motivation is high (ex. Don’t mind studying at all), use rewards selectively: -rewards can increase intrinsic motivation or keep it high when given for quality of performance (ex. A job well done), rather than for just performing the behavior B. The Cognitive Perspective(s) 1. Expectancy x Value Theory  Motivation is influenced by two basic cognitions: a. Expectancy of achieving goal b. Value of goal If both are high, person will be motivated to achieve the goal If either is low, motivation will also be low 2. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory a. people must believe they have the ability to achieve goals (high self-efficacy) SOURCES of self-efficacy: i. Mastery experiences (our past experiences with past success or failure) ii. Vicarious experiences (performance of “models” who are similar to us) iii. Interpretation of our emotional arousal (is it “anxiety” or “excitement”?) iv. Social persuasion (others provide pep-talks ex. “You can do it!”) b. Self-efficacy is also influenced by goals we set for ourselves i. If too easy = high efficacy (but won’t learn much) ii. If too difficult = won’t be able to achieve (undermines “mastery” and s-e) Teachers can help set appropriate goals: -“moderately” difficult (challenging, but obtainable in a reasonable time) -clear performance standards (so students can see if goal was achieved) -also helps students learn what they are doing right and wrong (increases mastery) 3. The Attributional Approach a. Motivation depends on attributions (causal inferences) for past successes & failures b. Three causal dimentions: i. Causal Locus: Internal (something about person) vs. external (something about situation they’re in) *influences “self-esteem” (not motivation) ii. Stability: stable (not likely to change) vs. unstable (can change) *influences “future expectations” of success and failure iii. Controllability: can control vs. can’t control *influences perceived “self-efficacy” c. Motivational problems when failures are attributed to stable and uncontrollable causes eg. Failure of an exam Student 1: “I’m Stupid” (also internal, so low self esteem) Student 2: “Task will always be too difficult” (external so no effect on self-esteem) *motivation to succeed will be low and will be less likely to seek help d. Students can be taught to change their attributions (eg. “maybe I didn’t study hard enough” –internal, unstable, controllable) *motivation to succeed will be higher Part 2: Teacher Expectancy Effects (Self-Fulfilling Prophecies) A. Merton (1948): “SFR is…a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior, which makes the originally false definition come true” B. Rosenthal & Jac
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