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Chapter 5

Chapter 5: Phycology and Education

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Western University
Psychology 2990A/B
Leah Hamilton

PSYCH 2990 Chapter 5Phycology and EducationCognitive Psychology theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying human learning and behaviors Cognitivists Information Processing Theory a theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which individuals mentally think about and process the information they receive Principles of this theoryPeople learn new information more easily when they can relate it to something they already know People learn several pieces of new information more easily when they can relate them to an overall organizational structure Must consider not only what students are to learn but also how they can most effectively learn it Selective about what they process and learn because we are bombarded with too much information and can only handle so much at one time Must make wise decisions about the pieces of information they choose to attend to process and save Sensation ones ability to sense stimuli in the environmentPerception ones interpretation of stimuli What the body senses is not always perceived interpretedMeaning is constructed by the learner rather than being derived directly from the environment Construction lies at the core of many cognitive theories of learning people take many separate pieces of information and use them to create an understanding or interpretation of the world around them Once you have constructed the faces from the pictures they seem obvious even over time Combines information with what is already known to create meaningConstructivism a theoretical perspective that proposes that learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiencesknowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality adherents to this perspective are called constructivists 1920 Jean Piaget proposed that children construct their own understandings of the world based on their experiences with their physical and social environments Sometimes will learn misinformation so need to monitor understanding by asking questions encouraging dialogue and listening carefully to students ideas and explanationsPrior knowledge and beliefs play a major role in the meanings that people constructPerhaps different students in the same classroom learn different things because they have their own personal histories and experiences Existing understandings of the world have a major influence on what and how effectively people can learn from their experiences Actively involved in their own learningMust be active cognitive processing and knowledge construction require a certain amount of mental work PSYCH 2990 Chapter 5Phycology and EducationBasic Terminology in Cognitive PsychologyMemory a learners ability to save something mentally that they have previously learned or the mental location where such information is saved in working memory or long term memoryStorage the process of putting new information into memory acquisition of knowledgeEncoding Changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory Often different from how it is presented Change from visual to auditory reading aloud or auditory to visual mental pictureAssigning specific meanings and interpretations to stimuli and events Store the gist of it without necessarily storing the specific words Tendency to encode the gist increases as children get older Retrieval the process of finding information previously stored in memory Some are easy to retrieve some take effort and some cannot be retreived at all A model of human memoryThere are three components of memory but not necessarily three separate parts of the brain Model is derived from studies of human behavior not from studies of the brainSensory Register component of memory that holds the information that students receiveinputin more or less its original unencoded form Everything that they are capable of seeing hearing and otherwise sensing is stored in the sensory register Large capacity can hold a great deal of information at one time Information stored here doesnt last very long Visual information lasts for less than a second Auditory information lasts slightly longerFor it to last longer it needs to move to working memory if not it is forgotten and lost Moving Information to the Working Memory Attention whatever students pay attention to mentally moves into working memory Anything that does not get a students attention disappears from the memory system Even if your eyes are focused on the book if you are thinking about something else you retain none of the information Not just behavior but also a mental process How to test if they are paying attentionAsk questions to test students understanding of the ideas you are presentingMore likely to focus if they know they will be immediately tested on it Tell them to put new information to useEncourage older students to take notes helps learn info because it makes them pay attention to what they are hearing or reading
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