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Chapter 2

Chapter Two-Police Investigations.docx

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Psychology 2990A/B
Karen Dickson

Chapter Two- The psychology of Police Investigations Police Interrogations  Police interrogation a process whereby the police interview a suspect for the purpose of gathering evidence and obtaining a confession o Two goals of police interrogation: gain info and to get a confession  Police interrogations involve different tactics depending where you are in the world o England is less coercive then North America The Reid Model of Interrogation and Interrogation in North America  The Reid Model of Interrogation A nine-step model of interrogation used frequently in North America to extract confessions from suspects. Written by John E Reid.  Interrogations in North America come from a book called Criminal Interrogation and Confessions  The Reid model consists of three stages: 1. Gather evidence and interview witnesses/victims 2. Conduct a non-accusatorial interview of the suspect 3. Conduct an accusatorial interview of the suspect and continue on with the nine step process (stages 1 and 2 are always done but 3 is only done if the interrogator thinks the suspect is guilty.)  The purpose of the Reid model is to make the consequences associated with the crime, more desirable then having anxiety about the crime their whole lives.  Minimization techniques soft sell tactics used by the police interrogators that are designed to lull the suspect into a false sense of security. (“he had it coming”.)  Maximization techniques Scare tactics used by the police interrogators that are designed to intimidate a suspect believed to be guilty. (“we have an eye witness”.)  Two problems with the Reid technique 1. Detecting deceptiona way to protect an individual that is being falsely accused are the Miranda rights also known in Canada as the charter or rights and freedoms 2. Investigator Bias Bias that can result when police officers enter an interrogation setting already believing that the suspect is guilty Interrogation Practices and the Courts  There are two types of confessions, voluntary and involuntary but it is hard to tell the difference sometimes  Voluntary confessions are always used in courts where as involuntary ones are not because they are likely to be false  Involuntary confessions are ones that happen during extreme coercion False Confessions  False Confessions if it is elicited in response to a demand for a confession and is either intentionally fabricated or is not based on actual knowledge of the facts that form its content  Retracted Confessions a confession that the confessor later declares to be false  Disputed confession a confession that is later disputed at trial Types of false confessions suggested by Kassin and Wrightsman Different Types of False Confessions  Voluntary false confessions a false confession that is provided without any elicitation from the police o Voluntary false confessions happen for many reasons for example people being unable to distinguish fact from fantasy or the need to protect someone else.  Coerced-compliant false confession A confession that results from a desire to escape a coercive interrogation environment or gain benefit promise by the police  Coerced-internalized false confession A confession that results from suggestive interrogation techniques, whereby the confessor actually comes to believe he or she committed the crime Interrogative Suggestibility and Compliance  Compliance  Suggestibility a tendency to accept information communicated during questioning  Gudjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS) used to measure a persons level of compliance  Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) a scale that is used to measure a persons level of suggestibility  Yield the extent to which people who are completing the GSS1 give into leading questions.  Shift the extend to which people who are completing the Gss1 alter their answers when put under pressure by the interviewer  Internalization Accepting that something suggested to you is true  Confabulation Making things up The consequences of Falsely Confessing: 1. The impact on the individual making the confession 2. Diverts the police down a false trail, which wastes valuable time and takes them off track of the true offender. Criminal Profiling  Criminal Profiling An investigative technique for identifying the major personality and beha
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