Chapter Four-Sports Psychology
Goal setting is the most commonly used performance enhancement strategy
in sport psychology
Types of goals
Performance goals improving and attaining personal performance
standards ex. giving 100% effort at all times in a lacrosse match
Process goals focus on specific behaviour that an athlete must engage in
throughout a performance ex. pulling arms in tight during figure skating spin
Outcome goals focus on social comparison and competitive results ex.
winning a race
Performance profiling a flexible assessment tool that allows for the
identification of athletes performance-related strengths and weaknesses
1. Identify key performance characteristics of an elite athlete in your
2. Identify the ideal rating for each of the athletes characteristics
3. Rate your current ability for each characteristic from 1-10.
4. Find the difference between your score and their score.
5. Prioritize your targets
SMART goals should be specific, measurable, adjustable, realistic and
Common Goal-setting problems
Setting too many goals
Do not willingly participate in the goal setting program
Do not understand the time it takes to implement a goal setting program
Failure to provide follow up
Analytic Model of Imagery
Cognitive general imagery includes images of strategies, game plans or
routines ex. imagining a floor routine in gymnastics
Cognitive specific imagery includes images of specific sport skills ex.
imagining a free throw in basketball
Motivational general imagery includes images related to physiological
arousal levels and emotion ex. imagining feeling calm and relaxed in front of
o motivational general-arousal representing imagery associated with
arousal and stress
o motivational general-masteryimagery associated with being
mentally tough and self confident (used the most) Motivational specific imagery includes images related to an individuals
goals ex. imagining receiving a gold metal
These 5 functions make up the analytic model of imagery
Injured athletes use imagery for three main reasons, cognitive, motivational
and healing imagery.
Imagery assessment tools
Movement imagery questionnaire-revised (MIQ-R) an eight term
questionnaire that assesses an individuals visual and kinesthetic imagery
Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ) assesses the
vividness of visual imagery ability.
Test of Psychological Skills (TOPS), Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool
provide information on imagery frequency.
Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) questionnaire that asks athletes how
frequently they use the five functions of imagery
PETTLEP Model of imagery (pg. 118).
Self talk out loud or in your head sport related statements that are
addressed to the self, multi-dimensional and somewhat dynamic in nature.
Serves two purposes to the athlete, instructional and motivational.
Functions of Self-Talk
Self talk has to basic functions in sport: instructional and motivational
Instructional self-talk used by athletes for skill development, skill
execution, strategy development and general performance.
Motivational self-talk it has three purposes
a. Mastery ex. Building self confidence
b. Arousal ex. Psyching up
c. Drive ex. Increasing effort
Assessment of Self-Talk
The Self-Talk Grid measures two dimensions of self talk:
o Valence (positive vs. negative)
o Directional interpretation (motivating vs. de-motivating)
Downfall is that it only assesses two of the 6 dimensions of self talk
The Self-Talk Use Questionnaire 59 item self-report instrument that assess
the frequency of athletes’ use of self-talk.
Self-talk and Gestures Ratin