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Chapter 4

Chapter Four-SPORTS.docx

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Psychology 2990A/B
Karen Dickson

Chapter Four-Sports Psychology Goal Setting  Goal setting is the most commonly used performance enhancement strategy in sport psychology Types of goals  Performance goals improving and attaining personal performance standards ex. giving 100% effort at all times in a lacrosse match  Process goals focus on specific behaviour that an athlete must engage in throughout a performance ex. pulling arms in tight during figure skating spin  Outcome goals focus on social comparison and competitive results ex. winning a race Assessing Goals  Performance profiling a flexible assessment tool that allows for the identification of athletes performance-related strengths and weaknesses 1. Identify key performance characteristics of an elite athlete in your sport 2. Identify the ideal rating for each of the athletes characteristics 3. Rate your current ability for each characteristic from 1-10. 4. Find the difference between your score and their score. 5. Prioritize your targets  SMART goals should be specific, measurable, adjustable, realistic and timely. Common Goal-setting problems  Setting too many goals  Do not willingly participate in the goal setting program  Do not understand the time it takes to implement a goal setting program  Failure to provide follow up Imagery Analytic Model of Imagery  Cognitive general imagery includes images of strategies, game plans or routines ex. imagining a floor routine in gymnastics  Cognitive specific imagery includes images of specific sport skills ex. imagining a free throw in basketball  Motivational general imagery includes images related to physiological arousal levels and emotion ex. imagining feeling calm and relaxed in front of a crowd o motivational general-arousal representing imagery associated with arousal and stress o motivational general-masteryimagery associated with being mentally tough and self confident (used the most)  Motivational specific imagery includes images related to an individuals goals ex. imagining receiving a gold metal These 5 functions make up the analytic model of imagery  Injured athletes use imagery for three main reasons, cognitive, motivational and healing imagery. Imagery assessment tools  Movement imagery questionnaire-revised (MIQ-R) an eight term questionnaire that assesses an individuals visual and kinesthetic imagery ability.  Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ) assesses the vividness of visual imagery ability.  Test of Psychological Skills (TOPS), Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool provide information on imagery frequency.  Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) questionnaire that asks athletes how frequently they use the five functions of imagery  PETTLEP Model of imagery (pg. 118). Self Talk  Self talk out loud or in your head sport related statements that are addressed to the self, multi-dimensional and somewhat dynamic in nature. Serves two purposes to the athlete, instructional and motivational. Functions of Self-Talk  Self talk has to basic functions in sport: instructional and motivational  Instructional self-talk used by athletes for skill development, skill execution, strategy development and general performance.  Motivational self-talk it has three purposes a. Mastery ex. Building self confidence b. Arousal ex. Psyching up c. Drive ex. Increasing effort Assessment of Self-Talk  The Self-Talk Grid measures two dimensions of self talk: o Valence (positive vs. negative) o Directional interpretation (motivating vs. de-motivating)  Downfall is that it only assesses two of the 6 dimensions of self talk  The Self-Talk Use Questionnaire 59 item self-report instrument that assess the frequency of athletes’ use of self-talk.  Self-talk and Gestures Ratin
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