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Chapter 3&4

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Psychology 2990A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Chapter 3: Psychology and health Stress and human health - when ppl go major upheavals in their lives, their chances of dying increases. - Holocaust survivors who were teens at the end of the WW2, still continue to experience depression and paranoia. - Psychological distress is highest among students than of the general Canadian population Negative effects of negative life events - Hans Seyle defined stress as the body’s physiological response to threatening situations - Homes and Rahe – Stress is the degree to which people have to CHANGE and readjust their lives. - Holmes and Rahe made the social readjustment scale – respondent get a list of life events and each of which is assigned to certain points depending on stressful it is (eg: being raped compared to an exam). - Higher the score, the worst their mental and physical health. Flaws 1. the study was correlational not experimental 2. focused on stressors experienced by only the middle class and under- represented stressors of low-income and poor people. Perceived stress and health - adding up the numbers does not give us an accurate picture of stress and health - situations can be subjective – meaning that everyone values stress differently. Eg: a person graduating from university might be the most happiest time of their life, while someone else might be stressed about their future. 1. Study of gay and bisexual men - found that greater the number of stressful events, the greater the risk of HIV infections – therefore, stress causes unsafe sexual behaviors. 2. Study on students at Waterloo - students with levels of interpersonal stress are more likely to report health problems – missing class - students with low self-esttem have high interpersonal stress. 3. Study on stress and common cold - Group 1 – high stress participants - Group 2 – least stress - Group 1 and 2 were given nasal drops with the virus - Results? – ppl experiencing greater deal of stress were more likely to catch a cold from the virus, even after things like age, sex, weight was controlled. - High stress = low immune function - Even mild stress can suppress immune system Percievd control - the belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes. Study at University of Manitoba - First year students who felt that they had control over their academic performance reported less anxiety, stress, boredom and depression anch achieved better grades. Study – Canada wide survey on elderly - Older (85 years) ppl perceived a decrease in perceived control after a fall compared to young-old ppl. Study by Canadian Aging research network - found that those who precived o have control over housework and outdoor work were more likely to have goo health - ALL OF THESE STUDIES ARE CORRELATIONAL – there could the opposite factor were elderly who believe to have good health show great percievd control. Study by David Glass and Jerome Singer - participants were given several problems to solve while they heard loud burst of sound Condition 1 – bursts of noise occurred at unpredictable lengths Condition 2 – People heard the bursts of noise, but were given the option to turn it off if they wanted by pressing a button ( though reserachers didn’t recommend it) - all participants in condition 2 DID NOT turn off the noise!! - They had control over the burst of noises Results - For easy tasks, the noise didn’t affect any of the groups - For complex tasks, condition 1 participants made way MORE errors than the control group and condition 2 participants. Increasing perceived control in nursing homes Study on benefiting residents of a nursing home - Group 1 resident – were given a speech by the director on how much responsibility and control they had over their decisions. - Were given the decision to attend movie night on one of the two nights - Given a plant to take care of and told them it was upto them to care for it. - Group 2 resident - gave a similar speech, but own decision making and responsibility was deleted - Given a plant, but told them that the nurse will take care of them - Assigned movie nights Results - Group 1 were happier and more active than group 2. Showed improvement in health and decreased death Similar study by Schulz and Hanusa - started a program in nursing homes were undergrads came to visit the residents. - Group 1 – had the control on when the undergrads could come in to visit them - Group 2 – the students decided when they wanted to come in to visit Results - after 2 months, residents in group 1 were happier, took fewer medication than group 2. - Aftermath results?! - After several months and the cessation of student visits , group 1 – did worse than group 2 and there was an increase in deaths. Disease, control, and well-being - perceived control and stress is stronger in western cultures than Asian cultures. - In western culture, individualism and personal achievement is priced and hat is why many ppl feel stressed when they cannot control their destinies. - Asian culture - are collectivist and put their social group ahead of them. Self-efficacy - the belief in one’s ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes. - Increases the likelihood of a desired behavior - Ppl will high efficacy experience less stress while working on difficult task and their immune system functions at optimal level. Self-efficacy and smoking cessation - Self-efficacy group – smokers were told that they were choosen b/c they had a greater chance of quiting. - Treatment alone – smokers were told that they were randomly selected - No treatment group – researcher never got back with the no treatment group. Results – 67% of self-efficacy group had quit smoking, higher than all the other ones. - all the ppl were randomly selected. Study on students visualization and new year’s resolution - to increase self-efficacy is to visualize or picture success - Self efficacy – participants were asked to think about past tasks that they had mastered or think of someone who had pursued a similar goal. - Other participants were asked to write out an implementation plan – step by step. - The greatest success was seen among those who had received th self-effcacy intervention and who had spelled out their plan for achieving their goal. Learned helplessness - pessismism that results from attributing a negative event to stable, internal and global factors. Chapter 4 : Sport psychology Why do atheletes approach applied sport psych? 1. to seek help for their anxiety and lack of self-esteem 2. to work on their sport mental abilities, such as imagery and attention control Psychological skills training intervention – entails a structured and consistent practice of psychological skills – education ( learning the importance of mental skills in sports), acquisition ( learn how to apply these skills) and practice ( continualy practice them to become efficient). Goal setting - most commonly used performance enhancement strategy in sport psychology, but most athletes rate goal setting as being only moderately effective in enhancing their performance. Types of goal setting 1
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