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Chapter 13

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Psychology 3229A/B
Scott Mac Dougall- Shackleton

Chapter 13 Evolution and Individual DifferencesIndividual Differences and EvolutionThere is a great deal of evidence that people exhibit difference in personality and intelligence that are stable over time and across different contextsThe existence of moderate heritability coefficients suggests individual differences are at least partly due to genetic differencesThis suggests that there is some benefit in terms of inclusive fitness to having variability in our offspringThere are no inclusive fitness benefits of tending towards one personality rather than another or being more or less intelligent There is no single globally optimal human nature Individual Differences in Personality What is PersonalityDistinction between psychological states and psychological traitsDifferences in psychological traits personality can be thought of as difference in what people are motivated to do or how they respond to a particular state of affairs Personality tests usually measure traits rather than states How Many Personality Traits are ThereThe technical method of reducing a vast number of potential traits to a manageable few is known as Factor AnalysisLumpers and SplittersPersonality theorists tend to fall into two camps lumpers and splittersLumpers tend to produce a small number of personality factors whereas splitters tend to produce larger numbersThe ultimate lumper was Hans Eysenck who reduced all of the variation in personality to just three factors which are the famous extraversion vs introversion neuroticism vs stability and psychoticism vs socialized Each factor is a continuum rather than a typeEach dimension is also orthogonal to the others which means that the score on one factor is not correlated with the score on any other factor when sampled across a large number of individualsOther lumpers are those researchers who produced the socalled Big Five personality factorsThe Big Five Personality FactorsFactorHigh ScorerLow ScorerOpenness to Tendency to be Tendency to be adventurous curiousconservative and ExperienceclosedmindedTendency to be self Tendency to be Conscientiousnessdisciplined and goalimpulsive driven directedmore by situation
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