Psychology 3301F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: British Psychological Society, Evidence-Based Practice, Housing First

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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Clinical Psychology
Intro
As many people who suffer from common chronic health conditions such as heart
disease and diabetes suffer from depression
1/10 of every 10 Canadian adolescents and adults reported symptoms consistent with a
diagnosis of a mental disorder
cost of mental illness to Canadian society absenteeism, disability, health care etc 63
billion annually
estimate that one in five people suffer from a mental disorder applied to all age groups,
including children, adolescents, adults and other adults
economic burden is second to cardiovascular conditions
evidence that psych services can dramatically reduce the negative health impact of
these lifestyle and psychosocial risk factors
at any time, there are 450 million people worldwide suffering from mental, neurological
and behavioural problems
Metal Health….
o Increases mortality
o Found in all countries
** page 4 facts review
Determining The Nature and Scope of Clinical Psych
clinical psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on developing assessment
strategies and interventions to deal with these painful experiences that touch
eeryoes life
Mental Health Commission of Canada
in Canada, health services are provided by provinces, federal initiatives though have
underline the need for a national strategy
federal government created Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC) following
report to draw attention to increased need in government investment (Out of the
Shadows)
MHCC: designed to foster collaboration among different levels of government, service
proiders, researhers et…
MHCC has two clear messages about people living with a mental disorder
o 1. Have a right to receive services and supports they need
o 2. Have right to be treated with same dignity and respect as those struggling to
recover from any kind of illness
MCHH has 6 initiatives/projects
o 1. Opening Minds
o 2. Mental Health First Aid
o 3. Mental Health Strategy for Canada
o 4. Knowledge Exchange Centre
o 5. Housing First
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o 6. Peer Project
despite common differences in defining clinical psychology a common themes is that its
based firmly on scientifically supported psych theories and principles
is a science based profession; involves gathering evidence about optimal strategies for
delivering health care services
International Definitions of Clinical Psych
APA involves research, teaching and services relevant to applications of principles,
ethods…. “trie to reogize the iportae of diersity ad stries to understand gender,
culture, and other dimensions of diversity
British Psychological Society applies the sietifi koledge ase of psyhology to liial
proles…ai to redue psyh distress ad to ehae ad proote psyh ell-being
New Zealand Psych Board apply psych knowledge and theory derived from research to the
area of mental health and development, to assist children, young persons, so on by using psych
assessments etc
clinical psych now includes numerous approaches to intervention and prevention
services that are provided
oers idiret series too that dot iole otat ith those sufferig suh as
consultation activities, research, program development, program evaluation,
supervision of other mental health professions etc
changing nature of the definition requires that any definition of the field by treated as
temporary, to be maintained only as long as it accurately reflects the field
Canadian Definition of Clinical Psych
includes both scientific research, clinical service….
Overlap w/ some other fields like counselling psych and clinical neuropsychology
Aordig to ode….atiities of clinical psychologists are direct toward: respect for the
dignity of the persons; responsible caring; integrity in relationships; and responsibility to
society
Evidence-Based Practice in Psych
Debate about extent to which clinical psych can or should be based solely on science of
psych
Critics of science based express following concerns
o Group-based data cant be used in working with an individual- because great deal
of psych research is based on research designs that involve study of groups of
indiviudals, its difficult to determine relevance of research results to any specific
indiv
o Clients have problems now we cant afford to wait for research
o Each individuals unique life experience, culture etc makes it unlikely general
principles can provide useful guidance
o No research evidence on how to understand or treat many of the human
problems confronted by clinical psych on daily basis
these are legit concerns; but imply basing practice on individual psychologists gut
feelings, intuition or experience
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o overreliance on this can be risky if not balanced with application of scientifically
based knowledge and w/ scientific approach to developing and testing clinical
hypotheses
Richard McFall challenged field to provide only psych services that research has
shown to be effective and safe
MFalls Maifesto for a “iee of Cliial Psyh
Cardinal Principle scientific clinical psych is the only legit and acceptable form of
clinical psych
First corollary series shouldt e adiistered to the puli util hae et
following four minimal criteria
o Criterion 1: exact nature of service must be described clearly
o 2: claimed benefits of service must be stated explicitly
o 3: these claimed benefits must be validated scientifically
o 4: possible negative side effects that might outweigh any benefits must be ruled
out empirically
Second corollary primary and overriding objective of doctoral programs in clinical
psych must be to produce the most competent clinical scientists possible
Demand only scientifically supported treatment offered
o Sparked debate about appropriateness and ethics of routine psych service that
has no documents, scientifically sound evidence
Evidence based practice (EBP)
o A) requires clinical to synthesize info drawn from research and systematically
collected data on patient in question
o B) informing patients, based on best available research evidence, about viable
options for assessment, prevention or intervention services
Mental Health Professions
Definitions above emphasized that clinical psychology is primarily concerned with
application of psych knowledge in assessment, prevention and or intervention in
problems in thoughts, behaviours and feelings
Objective of research in clinical psych is to produce knowledge that can be used to guide
the development and application of psych services
Counselling Psych
Important to distinguish between counselling psych and counselling
Counselling = generic term used to describe a range of mental health professions
Historically, distinction was in terms of severity of problems treated
Traditionally, clinical focused on assessment and treatment of psychopathology
(manifestation of anxiety, depression etc that warrant clinical diagnosis)
Counselling provided services to individuals who were dealing with normal challenges in
life (going to uni, dealing with changes in work etc)
o Dealing with people that were well adjusted
Another distinction was type of setting in which they worked
o Counselling: employed in educational
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