Psychology 3301F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Dementia Praecox, Emil Kraepelin, Dementia

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Chapter 3: Classification and Diagnosis
Intro
Classification is a central element of all branches of science and social science
o Classification system allows for us to organize describe and relate
Validity = extent to which principles used in classifying are effective in capturing the
nature of the entity
Utility = usefulness of resulting classification scheme
Categorical approach = entity is determined to be either member of category or not
Assumption underlying categorical classification is there is an important qualitative
difference between entities that are members of a category
Dimensional approach = classified entities differ in extent to which they possess certain
characteristics or properties
o Focuses on qualitative differences
o Reflects assumption that all entities can be arranged on continuum to indicate
degree of membership in a category
Thomas Achenbach = his work yielded two broad dimensions of problems:
o Externalizing problems (acting out, yelling, stealing) and internalizing problems
Worked resulted in development of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based
Assessment
o Family of empirically derived assessment tools to measure competence and
problems
Diagnostic system = classification based on rules used to organized and understand
diseases and disorders
Diagnosis = result of applying the decision-making rules of a diagnostic system to the
symptoms of a specific individual
Emil Kraepelin: whose initial examination of dementia praecox (now schizophrenia) and
manic-depressive insanity (bi polar) laid foundation for current psychiatric diagnostic
systems
The neo-Kraepeliia approah to lassifiatio has harateristis….
o Viewing each diagnosis as medical illness; emphasizes importance of diagnostic
reliability
Prototype model = members of a diagnostic category may differ in the degree to which
they represent the concepts underlying the category
o Applying this to psychiatric diagnosis implies not all receive same diagnosis have
exact same symptoms
Defining Abnormal Behaviour and Mental Disorders
Psychologist must have a good sense of range of normal behaviour in a particular
developmental period to be able to judge what is abnormal
Developmental Psychopathology
= framework for understanding problem behaviour in relation to the milestones that are
speifi to eah stage of a perso’s deelopet
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o underlies that both bio and psych systems are constantly changing
o involves snapshot of current issues, and course if left untreated
Diagnosis
diagnostic criteria always include a cluster of symptoms that co-occur
diagnosis of mental disorders involves challenges that are less common in the diagnosis
of physical conditions
classification systems for mental disorders rely almost entirely on the observation of
symptoms
o most diagnostic decisions are derived largely from client self-report data
in defining abnormality, it is extremely important to rely on scientific evidence not just
value judgements
Defining Disorder
…sdroe haraterized  liiall sigifiat disturae i a idiidual’s
cognition, emotion regulation, or behaviour that reflects a dysfunction in the psych, bio
or deelopetal proesses uderlig etal futioig…assoiated ith distress or
disailit…
diagnosis requires dysfunction; harmful dysfunction
o = behaviours associated with a mental disorder are dysfunctional and
dysfunction causes harm to indiv or those around them
dyscontrol = impairment resulting from a disorder must be involuntary or not readily
controlled
Prevalence
1/10 of every Canadian adolescents and adults reported symptoms consistent with a
diagnosis of a mental disorder
based on WHO research; most frequently co-occurring mental disorders were anxiety,
insomnia, depression, somatoform, and alcohol and drug dependence
most disabling were depression, dementia, alcohol use, and stroke
across all countries, mental disorder viewed as more disabling than physical
Understanding Development
modern theories of etiology of mental disorders are all based on a biopsychosocial
model
consensus that presence of disorders is determined by blend of bio, psych and social
factors
researchers found that rate at which depressive symptoms occurred in children and
adolescents was not consistent over the course of their development
there are destabilizing factors influencing child development and the subsequent
experience of depressive symptoms
symptoms of depressed increased much more rapidly for girls, starting at grades 5-7
depressive symptoms highest in young adulthood, decreased during middle, then
increased in older adulthood
½ those ho eperiee first episode of depressio did’t eperiee it agai
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) System
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