Psychology 3301F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Premorbidity, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences, Structural Level

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Chapter 7: Assessment: Intellectual and Cognitive Measures
Intro
Tests of intelligence and related cognitive abilities are among the psychometrically strongest tests that
psychologists have developed
Defining Intelligence
Biet’s defiitio foused o ability related to scholastic/academic task
o Subsequent definitions have focused on the context of life more generally
Wechsler: defined intelligence as a persons global capacity to act purposefully, to think in a rational
manner, and to deal effectively with their environment
Devoted his career to the development of scales to assess a range of problem solving skills
Assumed that these abilities were acquired through education and life experiences
Theories of Intelligence
Categorize modes into three domains: factor models, hierarchical models and information processing
models
Factors models involve two or more factors that are postulated to be at more or less same structural
level
Hierarchical based on assumption that there are different levels of factors with the higher order or
primary factors composed of lower-order or secondary factors
Info processing focus less on the organization and more on identification of processes
Charles Spearman: earliest and most influential factor model of intelligence
o Proposes that all intellectual activities share a single common core, general factor, g factor
o Said also s factors, specific factors that are responsible for unique aspects
Made up two factor theory model (g and s)
Thurstone proposed group of factors known as primary mental abilities
o These are relatively distinct, overlap to a very small extent and this overlap that Thurstone
suggested as Speara’s g factor
o He also developed a measure of intelligence based on his model
Cattell: believed that existing intelligence tests were too focused on verbal, school
o Two general factors of intelligence: crystallized and fluid
Stererg’s triarhi theor: ioles three iterrelated eleets: opoetial, eperietial, ad
contextual
o Model suggests that consideration of all these elements is necessary to understand intelligence
Seod ifo proessig theor, Garder’s theor of ultiple itelligees
o Less importance to g factor; multiple forms of intelligence
o Argued culturally unbiased assessment requires recognition of the full range of different types of
intelligence
Earlier theories playing more of a role on g and later on info processing skills
Assessing intelligence: the clinical context
Assessment of intelligence is often an integral component of a psychological assessment
Common questions addressed by psychologists in such cases is whether the current level of functioning
represents a change from a previous level
Premorbid IQ = intellectual functioning prior to accident or onset of decline
o Have developed some effective strategies for making these estimates
Issues of possible changes in psychosocial functioning must be determined
Use of multiple sources of data, including intellectual test results, is relatively standard for assessment
questions that involves possible alterations
Cool used itelligee tests do’t tap the full rage of ailities that are iluded i oder theories
Tend to focus on those abilities that are related to academic performance
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