Tests of intelligence and related cognitive abilities are among the psychometrically strongest tests that psychologists have developed. Defining intelligence: bi(cid:374)et"s defi(cid:374)itio(cid:374) fo(cid:272)used o(cid:374) ability related to scholastic/academic task. Categorize modes into three domains: factor models, hierarchical models and information processing models. Info processing focus less on the organization and more on identification of processes. Charles spearman: earliest and most influential factor model of intelligence: proposes that all intellectual activities share a single common core, general factor, g factor. Said also s factors, specific factors that are responsible for unique aspects: made up two factor theory model (g and s) Cattell: believed that existing intelligence tests were too focused on verbal, school: two general factors of intelligence: crystallized and fluid. Ster(cid:374)(cid:271)erg"s triar(cid:272)hi(cid:272) theor(cid:455): i(cid:374)(cid:448)ol(cid:448)es three i(cid:374)terrelated ele(cid:373)e(cid:374)ts: (cid:272)o(cid:373)po(cid:374)e(cid:374)tial, e(cid:454)perie(cid:374)tial, a(cid:374)d contextual: model suggests that consideration of all these elements is necessary to understand intelligence. Se(cid:272)o(cid:374)d i(cid:374)fo pro(cid:272)essi(cid:374)g theor(cid:455), gard(cid:374)er"s theor(cid:455) of (cid:373)ultiple i(cid:374)tellige(cid:374)(cid:272)es.